SPECIES CODE: E009 V01
Listed as Endangered in the entire range on March 1, 1967 (32 FR 4001).
Note: All descriptions can be found within the Recovery Plan (1980), unless otherwise noted.
The Devilís Hole pupfish is a member of the Cyprinodontidae family.† This species rarely exceeds 0.98 inches, and has a life span of about one year.† The species is diurnal by nature, regularly utilizing areas beyond the shallow shelf to a maximum depth of approximately 30m.† The species feeds on algae, diatoms, and invertebrates.
REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT:
Not much is known about the reproductive habits of the species, except that it is able to spawn year round.† Growth and development is dependent on food supply (algae).
RANGE AND POPULATION LEVEL:
species is naturally restricted to Devilís Hole, a limestone cave situated on
the east central border of Ash Meadows,
The spring pool of Devilís Hole is located approximately 15 meters below the land surface where a shallow rock shelf approximately 2x4 meters is located.† Just beyond the shelf, the spring descends to an unknown depth (more than 80m) into myriad of chasms, mostly unexplored.
Water levels in Devilís Hole are designated as distance (in feet) below a USGS datum point installed on the rock wall above maximum water level (copper washer).† The Devilís Hole pupfish population started to decline in the 1960ís due to groundwater pumping for agricultural purposes.† In 1977, the U.S. District Court for the District of Nevada, entered its order that the minimum water level at Devilís Hole necessary to preserve the pupfish is 2.7 feet below the copper washer.
The main threat to the Devilís Hole pupfish continues to be water loss.† Algal growth is dependent upon the amount of sunlight reaching the shelf.† Recently, sandladen runoff has removed much of the algal growth from the shelf, thus affecting food availability.†