jaguar (Panthera onca)

Federal Register | Recovery | Critical Habitat | Conservation Plans | Petitions | Life History

Listing Status:   

Where Listed: WHEREVER FOUND

General Information

A large, heavy-bodied, big-headed cat. Yellowish to tawny, spotted with black rosettes or rings in horizontal rows along the back and sides; most rings are tan inside, with 1 or 2 black spots. Legs, head, and tail have smaller, solid spots, usually giving way to incomplete bands near the end of the tail.

  • States/US Territories in which the jaguar, Wherever found is known to or is believed to occur:  Arizona , New Mexico
  • US Counties in which the jaguar, Wherever found is known to or is believed to occur:  View All
  • Countries in which the the jaguar, Wherever found is known to occur:  Mexico
  • Additional species information
 
Current Listing Status Summary
Status Date Listed Lead Region Where Listed
1972-03-28 Southwest Region (Region 2) Wherever found

» Federal Register Documents

Federal Register Documents
Date Citation Page Title
2013-08-29 00:00:00.0 78 FR 53390 53391 Designation of Critical Habitat for the Jaguar
2013-07-01 00:00:00.0 78 FR 39237 39250 Designation of Critical Habitat for the Jaguar; Revised proposed rule; reopening of comment period.
1980-07-25 00:00:00.0 45 FR 49844 49847 ETWP; Proposed Endangered Status for U.S. Populations of Five Species
1979-07-25 00:00:00.0 44 FR 43705 ETWP; U.S. Populations of Seven Endangered Species
2006-07-12 00:00:00.0 71 FR 39335 39337 Determination That Designation of Critical Habitat Is Not Prudent for the Jaguar: Notice of finding.
1994-07-13 00:00:00.0 59 FR 35674 35679 ETWP; Proposed Endangered Status for the Jaguar in the United States
2010-01-13 00:00:00.0 75 FR 1741 1744 Determination That Designation of Critical Habitat is Prudent for the Jaguar: Notice of determination.
1997-07-22 00:00:00.0 62 FR 39147 39157 ETWP; Final Rule To Extend Endangered Status for the Jaguar in the United Staus
1996-02-28 00:00:00.0 61 FR 7597 7613 ETWP; Review of Plant and Animal Taxa That Are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species
2006-04-21 00:00:00.0 71 FR 20714 20716 5-Year Review of 25 Southwestern Species
2012-08-20 00:00:00.0 77 FR 50213 50242 Designation of Critical Habitat for Jaguar: Proposed rule.
1993-04-13 00:00:00.0 58 FR 19216 ETWP; Notice of 90-Day Finding on Petition to List the Jaguar as Endangered in the United States
1972-03-30 00:00:00.0 37 FR 6476 List of Endangered Foreign Fish and Wildlife (proposed 3 Feb 72; 37 FR 2589)
2014-03-05 00:00:00.0 79 FR 12571 12654 Designation of Critical Habitat for Jaguar; Final Rule
1982-09-17 00:00:00.0 47 FR 41145 ETWP; Notice of Withdrawal of Expired Proposal for Listing of US Populations of Thick-billed Parrot, Short-tailed Albatross, Margay Cat, & Jaguar

» Recovery

Current Recovery Plan(s)
Date Title Plan Action Status Plan Status
2012-04-18 Recovery Outline for the Jaguar Recovery efforts in progress, but no implementation information yet to display Outline
Other Recovery Documents
Date Citation Page Title Document Type
2006-04-21 71 FR 20714 20716 5-Year Review of 25 Southwestern Species
  • Notice 5-year Review, Initiation

» Critical Habitat

Date Citation Page Title Document Type Status
2014-03-05 79 FR 12571 12654 Designation of Critical Habitat for Jaguar; Final Rule Final Rule Final designated
2012-08-20 77 FR 50213 50242 Designation of Critical Habitat for Jaguar: Proposed rule. Proposed Rule Not Required

To learn more about critical habitat please see http://ecos.fws.gov/crithab

» Conservation Plans

No conservation plans have been created for jaguar.

» Petitions

» Life History

Habitat Requirements

Found near water in warm, tropical savannas and forests within core of their range. In the northern portion of the range, found in thornscrub, desertscrub, and grasslands. Vegetation communities used in Arizona range from Sonoran desertscrub at lower elevations to sub-alpine mixed conifer in the mountain ranges.

Food Habits

Generalist predator, taking mammals, birds, fish, larger reptiles (turtles and caimans)

Movement / Home Range

Jaguars have relatively large home ranges, the actual size depending on topography, habitat composition, prey base, and population dynamics. Contiguous habitats, or river corridors provide for movement corridors, particularly for dispersing males.

Reproductive Strategy

Within the core of their range, breeding may take place year round. At northern end, likely a spring breeding season exists. Gestation lasts 100 days, and 1-4 (usually 2) cubs are born and stay with their mother for nearly 2 years. Females achieve maturity at age 3, males at age 4. No breeding population is currently known in southern Arizona or New Mexico. The only documented jaguars in recent years have been males.

Other

Jaguars in the United States are likely dispersing males from breeding populations in northern Mexico. Movement corridors are important to maintain; however, human developments may block access to corridors or fragment contiguous habitats needed to sustain a home range. Fences and highways may be particularly damaging for movement corridors.

» Other Resources

NatureServe Explorer Species Reports -- NatureServe Explorer is a source for authoritative conservation information on more than 50,000 plants, animals and ecological communtities of the U.S and Canada. NatureServe Explorer provides in-depth information on rare and endangered species, but includes common plants and animals too. NatureServe Explorer is a product of NatureServe in collaboration with the Natural Heritage Network.

ITIS Reports -- ITIS (the Integrated Taxonomic Information System) is a source for authoritative taxonomic information on plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.

FWS Digital Media Library -- The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library is a searchable collection of selected images, historical artifacts, audio clips, publications, and video.