San Miguel Island Fox (Urocyon littoralis littoralis)

Federal Register | Recovery | Critical Habitat | Conservation Plans | Petitions | Life History

Listing Status:   

General Information

This is the smallest fox species known from the United States. Adult males weigh 2.00 kilograms on average, while adult females weigh 1.88 kilograms. Body length, including head and tail, ranges from 59 to 79 centimeters. Tail length alone ranges from 11 to 29 centimeters. Height at the shoulder is from 12 to 15 centimeters. Fur is greyish-white and black with cinnamon underfur on the dorsal side, and with pale white, yellow, and rusty-brown on the ventral surface. The chin, lips, nose, and areas around the eyes are lined in black while the sides of the rostrum are grey. The ears, neck, and sides of the limbs are cinnamon-colored. The tail has a contrasting thin black stripe on the dorsal side with a mane of stiff hairs. The underside of the tail is a rusty color. Fur color may differ among islands and be highly variable among individuals, ranging from overall greyish to honey brown and red. Island grey foxes molt once a year during the fall months from August to November. At that time, the fur coat fades in color and the fur tips curl at the ends. Young foxes tend to have a paler but thicker dorsal fur coat compared to adults. In addition, the ears are darker in color compared to adult foxes.

  • States/US Territories in which the San Miguel Island Fox, wherever found is known to or is believed to occur:  California
  • US Counties in which the San Miguel Island Fox, wherever found is known to or is believed to occur:  View All
 
Current Listing Status Summary
Status Date Listed Lead Region Where Listed
2004-03-05 California/Nevada Region (Region 8) wherever found

» Federal Register Documents

Federal Register Documents
Date Citation Page Title
1985-09-18 00:00:00.0 50 FR 37958 37967 Review of Vertebrate Wildlife; Notice of Review; 50 FR 37958-37967
2016-02-16 00:00:00.0 81 FR 7723 7741 Proposed Rule: Removing the SanMiguel Island Fox, Santa Rosa Island Fox, and Santa Cruz Island Fox From the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife, and Reclassifying the Santa Catalina Island Fox From Endangered to Threatened
1994-11-15 00:00:00.0 59 FR 58982 59028 ETWP; Animal Candidate Review for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species.
2016-08-12 00:00:00.0 81 FR 53315 53333 Final Rule: Removing the San Miguel Island Fox, Santa Rosa Island Fox, and Santa Cruz Island Fox From the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife, and Reclassifying the Santa Catalina Island Fox From Endangered to Threatened
1991-11-21 00:00:00.0 56 FR 58804 58836 ETWP; Animal Candidate Review for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species; 56 FR 58804 58836
1982-12-30 00:00:00.0 47 FR 58454 58460 Review of Vertebrate Wildlife for Listing as End. or Thr. Species
2012-09-14 00:00:00.0 77 FR 56858 56859 Notice of availability: Draft Recovery Plan for Four Subspecies of Island Fox
2004-05-04 00:00:00.0 69 FR 24876 24904 Review of Species That Are Candidates or Proposed for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions
2004-10-07 00:00:00.0 69 FR 60134 60138 Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; proposed designation of critical habitat for the san miguel island fox, santa rosa island fox, santa cruz island fox, and santa catalina island fox, proposed rule
2001-12-10 00:00:00.0 66 FR 63654 63665 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the San Miguel Island Fox, Santa Rosa Island Fox, Santa Cruz Island Fox, and Santa Catalina Island Fox as Endangered
2001-10-30 00:00:00.0 66 FR 54808 54832 ETWP; Review of Plant and Animal Species That Are Candidates or Proposed for Listing as Endangered or Threatened,Annual Notice of Findings on Recycled Petitions, and Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions; Proposed Rule
2010-05-21 00:00:00.0 75 FR 28636 28642 Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of 34 Species in California and Nevada; Availability of 96 Completed 5-Year Reviews in California and Nevada
2004-03-05 00:00:00.0 69 FR 10335 10353 Listing of the San Miguel Island Fox, Santa Rosa Island Fox, Santa Cruz Island Fox, and Santa Catalina Island Fox as Endangered; Final Rule
2015-03-09 00:00:00.0 80 FR 12521 12522 Recovery Plan and Initiation of Status Review for Four Subspecies of Island Fox (Urocyon littoralis); Notice of document availability and initiation of status reviews
2002-06-13 00:00:00.0 67 FR 40657 40679 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Species That Are Candidates or Proposed for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Recycled Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions
2005-11-09 00:00:00.0 70 FR 67924 67929 Final Determination Concerning Critical Habitat for the San Miguel Island Fox, Santa Rosa Island Fox, Santa Cruz Island Fox, and Santa Catalina Island Fox
1989-01-06 00:00:00.0 54 FR 554 579 ETWP; Animal Notice of Review; 54 FR 554 579

» Recovery

Current Recovery Plan(s)
Date Title Plan Action Status Plan Status
2015-02-27 Recovery Plan for Four Subspecies of Island Fox (Urocyon littoralis) View Implementation Progress Final
Other Recovery Documents
Date Citation Page Title Document Type
2015-03-09 80 FR 12521 12522 Recovery Plan and Initiation of Status Review for Four Subspecies of Island Fox (Urocyon littoralis); Notice of document availability and initiation of status reviews
  • Notice 5-year Review, Initiation
  • Notice Final Recovery Plan Availability
2016-02-16 81 FR 7723 7741 Proposed Rule: Removing the SanMiguel Island Fox, Santa Rosa Island Fox, and Santa Cruz Island Fox From the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife, and Reclassifying the Santa Catalina Island Fox From Endangered to Threatened
  • Proposed Delisting, Recovered
2012-09-14 77 FR 56858 56859 Notice of availability: Draft Recovery Plan for Four Subspecies of Island Fox
  • Notice Draft Recovery Plan Availability
2010-05-21 75 FR 28636 28642 Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of 34 Species in California and Nevada; Availability of 96 Completed 5-Year Reviews in California and Nevada
  • Notice 5-year Review, Initiation
2016-08-12 81 FR 53315 53333 Final Rule: Removing the San Miguel Island Fox, Santa Rosa Island Fox, and Santa Cruz Island Fox From the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife, and Reclassifying the Santa Catalina Island Fox From Endangered to Threatened
  • Final Delisting, Recovered
Delisting Documents
Date Title
2016-02-19 Island Fox Post-Delisting Monitoring - Golden Eagle Management Strategy
2013-11-01 Island Fox Post-Delisting Monitoring - Epidemic Response Plan

» Critical Habitat

Date Citation Page Title Document Type Status
2005-11-09 70 FR 67924 67929 Final Determination Concerning Critical Habitat for the San Miguel Island Fox, Santa Rosa Island Fox, Santa Cruz Island Fox, and Santa Catalina Island Fox Final Rule Final designated
2004-10-07 69 FR 60134 60138 Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; proposed designation of critical habitat for the san miguel island fox, santa rosa island fox, santa cruz island fox, and santa catalina island fox, proposed rule Proposed Rule Not Required

To learn more about critical habitat please see http://ecos.fws.gov/crithab

» Conservation Plans

No conservation plans have been created for San Miguel Island Fox.

» Petitions

» Life History

No Life History information has been entered into this system for this species.

» Other Resources

NatureServe Explorer Species Reports -- NatureServe Explorer is a source for authoritative conservation information on more than 50,000 plants, animals and ecological communtities of the U.S and Canada. NatureServe Explorer provides in-depth information on rare and endangered species, but includes common plants and animals too. NatureServe Explorer is a product of NatureServe in collaboration with the Natural Heritage Network.

ITIS Reports -- ITIS (the Integrated Taxonomic Information System) is a source for authoritative taxonomic information on plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.

FWS Digital Media Library -- The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library is a searchable collection of selected images, historical artifacts, audio clips, publications, and video.