Southern Sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis)

Federal Register | Recovery | Critical Habitat | Conservation Plans | Petitions | Life History

Listing Status:   

Where Listed: WHEREVER FOUND

General Information

Sea otters are protected under the Marine Mammal Protection Act, which prohibits the take (i.e., harass, hunt, capture, or kill) of all marine mammals. Sea Otters are about four feet long and weigh an average of 65 pounds for males and 45 pounds for females. They've got strong canines and strong molars to tear and crush their food. Their lung capacity is 2.5 times the size of land mammals of the same size. They have good eyesight and use their whiskers to sense vibrations in the water. They're known for the use of tools when eating. Because they love mollusks, sea otters will use rocks as hammers and anvils to help open the shells. Because they have no blubber, they must eat 25% of their body weight in food to maintain their high metabolism. Grooming is important as it forces air bubbles into their fur that acts as insulation (Friends of the Sea Otter).

  • States/US Territories in which the Southern Sea otter, Wherever found is known to or is believed to occur:  California
  • US Counties in which the Southern Sea otter, Wherever found is known to or is believed to occur:  View All
  • Countries in which the the Southern Sea otter, Wherever found is known to occur:  Mexico
 
Current Listing Status Summary
Status Date Listed Lead Region Where Listed
1977-01-14 California/Nevada Region (Region 8) Wherever found

» Federal Register Documents

Federal Register Documents
Date Citation Page Title
1987-08-11 00:00:00.0 52 FR 29754 29784 Establishment of Experimental Population of Southern Sea Otters; 52 FR 29754-29784
2012-12-19 00:00:00.0 77 FR 75265 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Termination of the Southern Sea Otter Translocation Program; Final Rule
2008-12-30 00:00:00.0 73 FR 79895 Marine Mammal Protection Act; Stock Assessment Report: Notice of Availability of final 2008 revised marine mammal stock assessment report for the southern sea otter in California; response to comments.
2011-08-26 00:00:00.0 76 FR 53381 53396 Termination of the Southern Sea Otter Translocation Program; Proposed rule and notice of availability
1984-07-13 00:00:00.0 49 FR 28583 28585 Notice of Finding on 6 Petitions; 49 FR 28583-28585
2012-11-09 00:00:00.0 77 FR 67302 67303 Termination of the Southern Sea Otter Translocation Program; Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement on the Translocation of Southern Sea Otters
2009-03-25 00:00:00.0 74 FR 12878 12883 Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of 58 Species in California, Nevada, Arizona, and Utah; Availability of Completed 5-Year Reviews in California and Nevada
1986-08-15 00:00:00.0 51 FR 29384 Proposed Establishment of Experimental Population of Southern Sea Otters; Notice of Availability; 51 FR 29384
2012-11-14 00:00:00.0 77 FR 67302 67303 Sea Otter Translocation Program; Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement on the Translocation of Southern Sea Otters
1988-09-27 00:00:00.0 53 FR 37577 37581 NOAA--Technical Amendments to Sea Otter Translocation Regulations; 53 FR 37577-37581
2003-04-03 00:00:00.0 68 FR 16305 16306 Notice of Availability of the Final Revised Recovery Plan for the Southern Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris nereis)
2014-01-22 00:00:00.0 79 FR 3612 3614 Marine Mammal Protection Act: Final Revised Stock Assessment Report for Southern Sea Otter
2000-02-08 00:00:00.0 65 FR 6221 6222 Notice of Availability of a Draft Revised Recovery Plan for the Southern Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) for Review and Comment
1983-06-14 00:00:00.0 48 FR 27273 27274 Findings on Certain Petitions; 48 FR 27273-27274
1983-02-15 00:00:00.0 48 FR 6752 675 Findings on Certain Petitions and Reviews of Status for Several Species; 48 FR 6752-6753
2004-02-06 00:00:00.0 69 FR 5861 5863 90-day Finding on a Petition to Delist the Southern Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris nereis)
1977-01-14 00:00:00.0 42 FR 2965 2968 Determination that the Southern Sea Otter is a Threatened Species; 42 FR 2965 2968 (Enhydra lutris nereis)
Special Rule Publications
Date Citation Page Title
1988-09-27 00:00:00.0 53 FR 37577 37581 NOAA--Technical Amendments to Sea Otter Translocation Regulations; 53 FR 37577-37581

» Recovery

Current Recovery Plan(s)
Date Title Plan Action Status Plan Status
2003-04-03 Final Revised Recovery Plan for the Southern Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) View Implementation Progress Final Revision 1
Other Recovery Documents
Date Citation Page Title Document Type
2011-11-04 76 FR 68393 68394 Termination of the Southern Sea Otter Translocation Program; Revised Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement on the Translocation of Southern Sea Otters: Proposed rule; notice of availability and reopening of public comment period
  • Notice Doc. Availability
  • Notice Reopen Comment
2003-04-03 68 FR 16305 16306 Notice of Availability of the Final Revised Recovery Plan for the Southern Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris nereis)
  • Notice Final Recovery Plan Availability
2000-02-08 65 FR 6221 6222 Notice of Availability of a Draft Revised Recovery Plan for the Southern Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) for Review and Comment
  • Notice Recovery Plan Avail.
2014-01-22 79 FR 3612 3614 Marine Mammal Protection Act: Final Revised Stock Assessment Report for Southern Sea Otter
  • Notice Doc. Availability
2009-03-25 74 FR 12878 12883 Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of 58 Species in California, Nevada, Arizona, and Utah; Availability of Completed 5-Year Reviews in California and Nevada
  • Notice 5-year Review, Initiation
Five Year Review
Date Title
2015-09-15 Southern Sea Otter 5-Year Review

» Critical Habitat

No critical habitat rules have been published for the Southern Sea otter.

» Conservation Plans

No conservation plans have been created for Southern Sea otter.

» Petitions

» Life History

No Life History information has been entered into this system for this species.

» Other Resources

NatureServe Explorer Species Reports -- NatureServe Explorer is a source for authoritative conservation information on more than 50,000 plants, animals and ecological communtities of the U.S and Canada. NatureServe Explorer provides in-depth information on rare and endangered species, but includes common plants and animals too. NatureServe Explorer is a product of NatureServe in collaboration with the Natural Heritage Network.

ITIS Reports -- ITIS (the Integrated Taxonomic Information System) is a source for authoritative taxonomic information on plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.

FWS Digital Media Library -- The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library is a searchable collection of selected images, historical artifacts, audio clips, publications, and video.