New Mexico meadow jumping mouse (Zapus hudsonius luteus)
Where Listed: WHEREVER FOUND
The New Mexico meadow jumping mouse (jumping mouse) is endemic to New Mexico, Arizona, and a small area of southern Colorado (Hafner et al. 1981, pp. 501-502; Jones 1999, p. 1). The jumping mouse is grayish-brown on the back, yellowish-brown on the sides, and white underneath (Van Pelt 1993, p 1). The species is about 7. 4 to 10 inches (187 to 255 mm) in total length, with elongated feet (1.2 inches (30.6 mm)) and an extremely long, bicolored tail (5.1 inches (130.6 mm)) (Van Pelt 1993, p. 1; Hafner et al. 1981, p. 509). The jumping mouse is a habitat specialist (Frey 2006d, p. 3). It nests in dry soils, but uses moist, streamside, dense riparian/wetland vegetation up to an elevation of about 8,000 feet (Frey 2006d, pp. 34-45). The jumping mouse appears to only utilize two riparian community types: 1) persistent emergent herbaceous wetlands (i.e., beaked sedge and reed canarygrass alliances); and 2) scrub-shrub wetlands (i.e., riparian areas along perennial streams that are composed of willows and alders) (Frey 2005, p. 53). It especially uses microhabitats of patches or stringers of tall dense sedges on moist soil along the edge of permanent water. Home ranges vary between 0.37 and 2.7 acres (0.15 and 1.1 hectares) and may overlap (Smith 1999, p. 4). The jumping mouse is generally nocturnal, but occasionally diurnal. It is active only during the growing season of the grasses and forbs on which it depends. During the growing season, the jumping mouse accumulates fat reserves by consuming seeds. Preparation for hibernation (weight gain, nest building) seems to be triggered by day length. The jumping mouse hibernates about 9 months out of the year, longer than most other mammals (Morrison 1990, p. 141; VanPelt 1993, p. 1; Frey 2005a, p. 59).
- States/US Territories in which the New Mexico meadow jumping mouse, is known to or is believed to occur: Arizona , Colorado , New Mexico
- US Counties in which the New Mexico meadow jumping mouse, is known to or is believed to occur: View All
- USFWS Refuges in which the New Mexico meadow jumping mouse, is known to occur:
Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge
- Additional species information
|Status||Date Listed||Lead Region||Where Listed|
|07/10/2014||Southwest Region (Region 2)|
» Federal Register Documents
|Date||Title||Plan Action Status||Plan Status|
|06/09/2014||Recovery Outline: New Mexico meadow jumping mouse (Zapus hudsonius luteus)||View Implementation Progress||Outline|
» Critical Habitat
|Date||Citation Page||Title||Document Type||Status|
|03/16/2016||81 FR 14263 14325||Designation of Critical Habitat for the New Mexico Meadow Jumping Mouse; Final Rule||Final Rule||Final designated|
|06/20/2013||78 FR 37327 37363||Proposed Designation of Critical Habitat for the New Mexico Meadow Jumping Mouse||Proposed Rule||Not Required|
To learn more about critical habitat please see http://ecos.fws.gov/crithab
» Conservation Plans
No conservation plans have been created for New Mexico meadow jumping mouse.
» Life History
1. Riparian communities along rivers and streams, springs and wetlands, or canals and ditches that contain: 2. persistent emergent herbaceous wetlands especially characterized by presence of primarily forbs and sedges (Carex spp. or Schoenoplectus pungens); or 3. Scrub-shrub riparian areas that are composed of willows (Salix spp.) or alders (Alnus spp.) with an understory of primarily forbs and sedges; and 4. Flowing water that provides saturated soils throughout the New Mexico meadow jumping mouse’s active season that supports: 5. Tall (average stubble height of herbaceous vegetation of at least 61 cm (24 inches) and dense herbaceous riparian vegetation composed primarily of sedges (Carex spp. or Schoenoplectus pungens) and forbs, including, but not limited to one or more of the following associated species: spikerush (Eleocharis macrostachya), beaked sedge (Carex rostrata), rushes (Juncus spp. and Scirpus spp.), and numerous species of grasses such as bluegrass (Poa spp.), slender wheatgrass (Elymus trachycaulus), brome (Bromus spp.), foxtail barley (Hordeum jubatum), or Japanese brome (Bromus japonicas), and forbs such as water hemlock (Circuta douglasii), field mint (Mentha arvense), asters (Aster spp.), or cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata); and 6. Sufficient areas of 9 to 24 km (5.6 to 15 mi) along a stream, ditch, or canal that contains suitable or restorable habitat to support movements of individual New Mexico meadow jumping mice; and 7. Include adjacent floodplain and upland areas extending approximately 100 m (330 ft) outward from the boundary between the active water channel and the floodplain (as defined by the bankfull stage of streams) or from the top edge of the ditch or canal.
Upon emerging from hibernation, diets of individual jumping mice (Zapus spp.) are primarily insects (e.g., lepidopteran larvae and beetles), along with grass seeds (Trainor et al. 2012, p. 435; Frey and Wright, 2012, pp. 28, 39). Diets shift from animals to a variety of seeds as the active season progresses (Trainor et al. 2012, p. 435; Frey 2013e, p. 9). Based on studies of other species, jumping mice (Zapus spp.) diets are varied, consisting of seeds, insects, fruits, and fungi (Quimby 1951, pp. 85–86; Hoffmeister 1986, p. 455; Morrison 1990, p. 141). Morrison (1990, p. 141) reported that jumping mice feed primarily on seeds of grasses and forbs, with seeds of sedges, bulrush (Scirpus spp.), and cattail (Typha latifolia) infrequently eaten. Frey and Wright (2010, p. 20; 2012, p. 28; Wright and Frey 2014, entire) observed radio-collared jumping mice on Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), adjacent to the middle Rio Grande in New Mexico, feeding on the ground and in the herbaceous “canopy” 0.5 to 1 m (1.6 to 3.3 ft) or more above the ground eating common threesquare (Schoenoplectus pungens), saltgrass (Distichlis spicata), spikerush (Eleocharis macrostachya), foxtail barley (Hordeum jubatum), Saunder’s wildrye (Elymus saundersii), Japanese brome (Bromus japonicas), slender wheatgrass (Elymus trachycaulus), and knotgrass (Paspalum distichum)
Movement / Home Range
New Mexico meadow jumping mice are generally believed to have limited vagility (ability to move) and possibly dispersal capabilities (Morrison 1988, p. 13; Frey and Wright 2012, pp. 43, 109). For example, on Bosque del Apache NWR, the subspecies exhibited extreme site fidelity for daily activities (i.e., movements to and from day nesting and feeding areas) (Frey and Wright 2012, p. 24). Frey and Wright (2012, pp. 12, 15) reported that the typical maximum distance travelled between successive telemetry locations by jumping mice on Bosque del Apache NWR was 300 m (984 ft). In addition, most daily movements based on 95 percent of maximum straight-line distances traveled between time-independent radio telemetry locations (i.e., sufficient time has elapsed to allow the animals to redistribute throughout the home range) were 192 m (630 ft) or less. Moreover, the maximum distance travelled between two successive points by all radio collared New Mexico meadow jumping mice on Bosque del Apache NWR was 744 m (2,441 ft), but most regular daily and seasonal movements were less than 100 m (328 ft) (Frey and Wright 2012, pp. 16, 109; Figure 9). One New Mexico meadow jumping mouse also moved up 1 km (3,280 ft) between years (Frey and Wright 2012, p. 33, 95-96); however, it is unclear how frequently jumping mice are undergoing these long-distance (> 1 km (0.6 mi)) movements. , Frey and Wright (2012, pp. 23, 54) fitted 20 jumping mice on Bosque del Apache NWR with radio collars to evaluate habitat selection. The estimated home range size averaged 1.37 ha (3.4 ac) (range = 0.2 to 4.15 ha (0.5 to 10.25 ac)). Typically, male home ranges (average = 1.77 ha (4.37 ac)) were larger than those of females (0.88 ha (2.17 ac)) (Frey and Wright 2012, p. 23). Beyond these data, very little is known about specific movements of the New Mexico meadow jumping mice.
Although little is known about the reproductive needs of the jumping mouse, the breeding season probably begins in July or August, with one litter produced each year (Morrison 1987, pp. 14–15; 1989, 22; Frey 2011, p. 69; 2012b, p. 5). Jumping mice (Zapus spp.) breed shortly after emerging from hibernation and may give birth to 2 to 7 young after an average 17 to 21 day gestation (Quimby 1951, p. 63; Frey 2011, p. 69). Young are fully developed and weaned at 4 weeks after birth (Morrison 1987, p. 16; Van Pelt 1993, p. 8). Females will use maternal nests (described below) in areas outside the moist riparian areas for giving birth and rearing young. Tall, dense riparian herbaceous vegetation provides the jumping mouse with a sheltered and hospitable environment, with adequate food resources that enables the mouse to successfully raise its young. The female provides all the care for their young until they are weaned and independent. It is unlikely that juveniles breed during the same year they are born (Morrison 1988, p. 9).
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