Southeastern Beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus niveiventris)

Federal Register | Recovery | Critical Habitat | Conservation Plans | Petitions | Life History

Listing Status:   

Where Listed: WHEREVER FOUND

General Information

The Southeastern beach mouse is the largest beach mouse; it averages 139 millimeters in total length and 52 millimeters in tail length. Although it is darker and more buffy than the Anastasia Island beach mouse, it is still lighter than most inland subspecies of the oldfield mouse.

  • States/US Territories in which the Southeastern Beach mouse, wherever found is known to or is believed to occur:  Florida
  • US Counties in which the Southeastern Beach mouse, wherever found is known to or is believed to occur:  View All
  • USFWS Refuges in which the Southeastern Beach mouse, wherever found is known to occur:  Archie Carr National Wildlife Refuge, Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, Pelican Island National Wildlife Refuge
  • Additional species information
 
Current Listing Status Summary
Status Date Listed Lead Region Where Listed
1989-05-12 Southeast Region (Region 4) wherever found

» Federal Register Documents

Federal Register Documents
Date Citation Page Title
1989-05-12 00:00:00.0 54 FR 20598 20602 ETWP; Endangered Status for the Anastasia Island Beach Mouse and Threatened Status for the Southeastern Beach Mouse; 54 FR 20598 20602
1988-07-05 00:00:00.0 53 FR 25185 25190 Proposed End. Status for Anastasia Island Beach Mouse & Thr. Status for Southeastern Beach Mouse; 53 FR 25185-25190
2014-03-25 00:00:00.0 79 FR 16366 16368 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 33 Southeastern Species
2007-04-26 00:00:00.0 72 FR 20866 20868 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Review of 22 Southeastern Species

» Recovery

Current Recovery Plan(s)
Date Title Plan Action Status Plan Status
1993-09-23 Anastasia Island/Southeast Beach Mice (2 spp.) View Implementation Progress Final
Other Recovery Documents
Date Citation Page Title Document Type
2014-03-25 79 FR 16366 16368 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 33 Southeastern Species
  • Notice 5-year Review, Initiation
2007-04-26 72 FR 20866 20868 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Review of 22 Southeastern Species
  • Notice 5-year Review, Initiation
Five Year Review
Date Title
2008-04-07 Southeastern beach mouse completed 5-year review

» Critical Habitat

No critical habitat rules have been published for the Southeastern Beach mouse.

» Conservation Plans

No conservation plans have been created for Southeastern Beach mouse.

» Petitions

» Life History

Habitat Requirements

Southeastern beach mice inhabit sand dunes which are vegetated by sea oats and dune panic grass. The scrub adjoining these dunes is populated by oaks and sand pine or palmetto. A study conducted on Merritt Island indicated that the southeastern beach mice may prefer open sand habitat with clumps of palmetto and sea grapes, or dense scrub habitat dominated by palmetto, sea grape, and wax myrtle; over seaward habitat with sea oats (Extine and Stout 1987). Little specific information exists about these species' burrowing habits, although they are presumed to be similar to those of beach mice on the Gulf Coast. Sometimes beach mice use the former burrows of ghost crabs, but usually they dig their own. Burrow entrances are generally found on the sloping side of a dune at the base of a clump of grass. The burrows are used for nesting and food storage as well as a refuge.

Food Habits

Predictably, beach mice feed on sea oats and beach grasses. The sea oats must be blown to the ground for the mice to eat. During the spring and early summer when seeds are scarce, beach mice may eat invertebrates.

Movement / Home Range

The distribution of the southeastern beach mouse has declined significantly, particularly in the southern part of its range. Historically, it was reported to occur from Florida's Ponce Inlet in Volusia County to Hollywood Beach in Broward County. More recently, the southeastern beach mouse has been reported only from Volusia County (Smyrna Dunes Park), Federal lands in Brevard County (Canaveral National Seashore, Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station), and in Indian River County (Sebastian Inlet State Recreation Area). Large, healthy populations of the southeastern beach mouse are still found on the beaches of Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Brevard County-all federally protected lands. This beach mouse is no longer found in the southern portion of its historic range (Broward, Palm Beach, and Martin Counties).

Reproductive Strategy

Breeding activities may be similar to those of beach mice on the Gulf Coast. The breeding season for beach mice appears to start in November and end in early January (Blair 1951). The female, which may reach reproductive maturity at 6 weeks of age, produces two to seven beach mice per litter. A female beach mouse can usually produce litters at 20-day intervals, but mortality is high. Most of the progeny will not survive over 4 months.

» Other Resources

NatureServe Explorer Species Reports -- NatureServe Explorer is a source for authoritative conservation information on more than 50,000 plants, animals and ecological communtities of the U.S and Canada. NatureServe Explorer provides in-depth information on rare and endangered species, but includes common plants and animals too. NatureServe Explorer is a product of NatureServe in collaboration with the Natural Heritage Network.

ITIS Reports -- ITIS (the Integrated Taxonomic Information System) is a source for authoritative taxonomic information on plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.

FWS Digital Media Library -- The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library is a searchable collection of selected images, historical artifacts, audio clips, publications, and video.