Southwestern Willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus)
Where Listed: WHEREVER FOUND
Small; usually a little less than 6 inches in length, including tail. Conspicuous light-colored wingbars. Lacks the conspicuous pale eye-ring of many similar Empidonax species. Overall, body brownish-olive to gray-green above. Throat whitish, breast pale olive, and belly yellowish. Bill relatively large; lower mandible completely pale. Best identified by vocalizations. Call a liquid, sharply whistled whit! or a dry sprrit; song a sneezy witch-pew or fitz-bew. While perched, characteristically flicks tail slightly upward.
- States/US Territories in which the Southwestern Willow flycatcher, Entire is known to or is believed to occur: Arizona , California , Colorado , Nevada , New Mexico , Texas , Utah
- US Counties in which the Southwestern Willow flycatcher, Entire is known to or is believed to occur: View All
- USFWS Refuges in which the Southwestern Willow flycatcher, Entire is known to occur:
Alamosa National Wildlife Refuge, Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Bill Williams River National Wildlife Refuge, Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge, Cibola National Wildlife Refuge... Show All Refuges
- Countries in which the the Southwestern Willow flycatcher, Entire is known to occur: Mexico
- Additional species information
|Status||Date Listed||Lead Region||Where Listed|
|02/27/1995||Southwest Region (Region 2)||Entire|
» Federal Register Documents
|Date||Title||Plan Action Status||Plan Status|
|08/30/2002||Final Recovery Plan for the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher||View Implementation Progress||Final|
|Date||Citation Page||Title||Document Type|
|03/05/2003||68 FR 10485||Notice of Availability of the Final Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Recovery Plan||
|06/06/2001||66 FR 30477 30478||EWTP;Notice of Availability of the Draft Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Recovery Plan for Review and Comment||
|10/10/2001||66 FR 51683 51684||ETWP;Notice of Reopening the Comment Period for the Draft Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Recovery Plan for Review and Comment||
|03/20/2008||73 FR 14995 14997||5-Year Reviews of 28 Southwestern Species||
|09/04/2014||Southwestern Willow Flycatcher 5-Year Review|
» Critical Habitat
|Date||Citation Page||Title||Document Type||Status|
|01/03/2013||78 FR 343 534||Designation of Critical Habitat for Southwestern Willow Flycatcher: Final rule.||Final Rule||Final designated|
|08/15/2011||76 FR 50542 50629||Designation of Revised Critical Habitat for Southwestern Willow Flycatcher: Proposed rule.||Proposed Rule||Not Required|
|10/19/2005||70 FR 60886 61009||Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus)||Final Rule||Not Required|
|10/12/2004||69 FR 60706 60786||Proposed Designation of Critical Habitat for Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus)||Proposed Rule||Not Required|
|07/22/1997||62 FR 39129 39147||ETWP; Final Determination of Critical Habitat for the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher||Final Rule||Not Required|
|07/23/1993||58 FR 39495 39522||ETWP; Proposed Rule to List the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher as Endangered with Critical Habitat||Proposed Rule||Not Required|
To learn more about critical habitat please see http://ecos.fws.gov/crithab
» Conservation Plans
|CCA Plan Summaries|
|Spring Mountains National Recreation Area|
» Life History
For nesting, requires dense riparian habitats (cottonwood/willow and tamarisk vegetation) with microclimatic conditions dictated by the local surroundings. Saturated soils, standing water, or nearby streams, pools, or cienegas are a component of nesting habitat that also influences the microclimate and density vegetation component. Habitat not suitable for nesting may be used for migration and foraging. Recurrent flooding and a natural hydrograph are important to withstand invading exotic species (tamarisk). Typically found below 8,500 feet of elevation. Critical habitat was finalized on October 19, 2005 in Apache, Cochise, Gila, Graham, Greenlee, Maricopa, Mohave, Pima, Pinal, and Yavapai counties (70 FR 60886). Revised critical habitat was proposed August 15, 2011(76 FR 50542) and includes river segments in counties currently designated plus those in La Paz, Santa Cruz, and Yuma counties. The 2005 critical habitat designation remains in effect until the current proposal is finalized. Training seminar/permits required for those conducting call playback surveys.
Primarily flying insects.
Movement / Home Range
The flycatcher is a summer breeder within its range in the United States. It is gone to wintering areas in Central America by the end of September. Nest territories are set up for breeding, and there is some site fidelity to nest territories.
Arrives on breeding grounds in late April to early May. Nesting begins in late May and early June, with fledging from late June to mid-August. Typically lay 3-4 eggs per clutch, laid at one day intervals and are incubated by the female for about 12 days. Young birds fledge 12-13 days after hatching. Typically only raise one brood per year; however some pairs will raise a second brood, or renest after a nest failure.
Loss and degradation of dense riparian habitats are the primary habitat threat to the flycatcher. Historically, water developments that altered flows in the rivers and streams were the primary threat. Now, with riparian areas limited and re-growth difficult due to changes in flows, fire is a significant risk to remaining habitats. Human disturbances at nesting sites may result in nest abandonment.
» Other Resources
NatureServe Explorer Species Reports -- NatureServe Explorer is a source for authoritative conservation information on more than 50,000 plants, animals and ecological communtities of the U.S and Canada. NatureServe Explorer provides in-depth information on rare and endangered species, but includes common plants and animals too. NatureServe Explorer is a product of NatureServe in collaboration with the Natural Heritage Network.
ITIS Reports -- ITIS (the Integrated Taxonomic Information System) is a source for authoritative taxonomic information on plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.
FWS Digital Media Library -- The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library is a searchable collection of selected images, historical artifacts, audio clips, publications, and video.