Jemez Mountains salamander (Plethodon neomexicanus)

Federal Register | Recovery | Critical Habitat | Conservation Plans | Petitions | Life History

Listing Status:   

Where Listed: WHEREVER FOUND

General Information

The Jemez Mountains salamander is uniformly dark brown above, with occasional fine gold to brassy coloring with stippling dorsally (on the back and sides) and is sooty gray ventrally (underside). The salamander is slender and elongate, and it possesses foot webbing and a reduced fifth toe. This salamander is a member of the family Plethodontidae, is strictly terrestrial, and does not use standing surface water for any life stage. Respiration (the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide) occurs through the skin, which requires a moist microclimate for gas exchange.

  • States/US Territories in which the Jemez Mountains salamander is known to or is believed to occur:  New Mexico
  • US Counties in which the Jemez Mountains salamander is known to or is believed to occur:  View All
  • Additional species information
 
Current Listing Status Summary
Status Date Listed Lead Region Where Listed
10/10/2013 Southwest Region (Region 2)

» Federal Register Documents

Federal Register Documents
Date Citation Page Title
09/10/2013 78 FR 55599 55627 Determination of Endangered Species Status for Jemez Mountains Salamander (Plethodon neomexicanus) Throughout Its Range
04/03/1992 57 FR 11459 11460 ETWP; Finding on a Petition to List the Jemez Mountain Salamander as Threatened or Endangered; 57 FR 11459 11460
11/21/1991 56 FR 58804 58836 ETWP; Animal Candidate Review for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species; 56 FR 58804 58836
01/06/1989 54 FR 554 579 ETWP; Animal Notice of Review; 54 FR 554 579
09/18/1985 50 FR 37958 37967 Review of Vertebrate Wildlife; Notice of Review; 50 FR 37958-37967
11/10/2010 75 FR 69222 69294 Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions; Proposed Rule
08/11/2009 74 FR 40132 40138 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Jemez Mountains Salamander (Plethodon neomexicanus) as Threatened or Endangered With Critical Habitat
11/20/2013 78 FR 69569 69591 Designation of Critical Habitat for the Jemez Mountains Salamander
09/12/2012 77 FR 56481 56513 Proposed Endangered Status for the Jemez Mountains Salamander and Proposed Designation of Critical Habitat
09/18/1990 55 FR 38342 38343 ETWP; 90-Day Findings on a Petition to List the Jemez Mountains Salamander as Threatened or Endangered; 55 FR 38342 38343
10/26/2011 76 FR 66370 66439 Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions
02/12/2013 78 FR 9876 9882 Endangered Status and Designation of Critical Habitat for the Jemez Mountains Salamander.
12/30/1982 47 FR 58454 58460 Review of Vertebrate Wildlife for Listing as End. or Thr. Species
09/09/2010 75 FR 54822 54845 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Jemez Mountains Salamander (Plethodon neomexicanus) as Endangered or Threatened With Critical Habitat
11/15/1994 59 FR 58982 59028 ETWP; Animal Candidate Review for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species.

» Recovery

No recovery information is available for the Jemez Mountains salamander.

» Critical Habitat

Date Citation Page Title Document Type Status
11/20/2013 78 FR 69569 69591 Designation of Critical Habitat for the Jemez Mountains Salamander Final Rule Final designated
09/12/2012 77 FR 56481 56513 Proposed Endangered Status for the Jemez Mountains Salamander and Proposed Designation of Critical Habitat Proposed Rule Not Required

To learn more about critical habitat please see http://ecos.fws.gov/crithab

» Conservation Plans

Candidate Conservation Agreements (CCA): (learn more)
CCA Plan Summaries
Jemez Mountain salamander

» Petitions

» Life History

Habitat Requirements

The strictly terrestrial Jemez Mountains salamander predominantly inhabits mixed-conifer forest, consisting primarily of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), blue spruce (Picea pungens), Engelman spruce (P. engelmannii), white fir (Abies concolor), limber pine (Pinus flexilis), Ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa), Rocky Mountain maple (Acer glabrum), and aspen (Populus tremuloides) (Reagan 1967, p. 17; Degenhardt et al. 1996, p. 28). Although pure stands of Ponderosa pine may not be considered ideal habitat, the species has occasionally been found in this habitat. The species has also occasionally been found in spruce-fir and aspen stands, and high-elevation meadows. However, these habitat types have not been adequately surveyed so the extent to which salamanders use these habitats is not fully known. Predominant understory trees include Rocky Mountain maple (Acer glabrum), New Mexico locust (Robinia neomexicana), oceanspray (Holodiscus sp.), and various shrubby oaks (Quercus spp.) (Reagan 1967, p. 17; Degenhardt et al. 1996, p. 28).

Food Habits

Salamander prey from aboveground foraging is diverse in size and type, with ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae), mites (Acari), and beetles (Coleoptera) being most important (most numerous, most voluminous, and most frequent) in the salamander’s diet (Cummer 2005, p. 43). Cummer (2005, pp. 45–50) found that specialization on invertebrate species was unlikely, but there was likely a preferential selection of prey categories (ants, mites, and beetles).

Movement / Home Range

In a mark–recapture study conducted by the New Mexico Department of Game and Fish (NMDGF), the average distance of 32 movements measured via recapture either in the same year or from year to year, measured over the course of approximately 10 years within a 164-ft-by-164-ft (50-m-by-50-m) plot, was 19.6 ft (5.98 m), with a maximum distance moved from original capture site of 60.7 ft (18.5 m) (NMDGF 2000, p. 15).

Reproductive Strategy

Sexual maturity is attained at 3 to 4 years in age for females and 3 years for males (Williams 1976, pp. 31, 35). Reproduction in the wild has not been observed; however, based on observed physiological changes, mating is believed to occur above ground between July and August during the rainy season (Williams 1976, pp. 31–36). Based on examination of 57 female salamanders in the wild and 1 clutch of eggs laid in a laboratory setting, Williams (1978, p. 475) concluded that females likely lay 7 or 8 eggs every 2 to 3 years. Eggs are thought to be laid underground in the spring, about 9 to 10 months after mating occurs (Williams 1978, p. 475). Fully formed Jemez Mountains salamanders hatch from the eggs.

» Other Resources

NatureServe Explorer Species Reports -- NatureServe Explorer is a source for authoritative conservation information on more than 50,000 plants, animals and ecological communtities of the U.S and Canada. NatureServe Explorer provides in-depth information on rare and endangered species, but includes common plants and animals too. NatureServe Explorer is a product of NatureServe in collaboration with the Natural Heritage Network.

ITIS Reports -- ITIS (the Integrated Taxonomic Information System) is a source for authoritative taxonomic information on plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.

FWS Digital Media Library -- The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library is a searchable collection of selected images, historical artifacts, audio clips, publications, and video.