Columbia Spotted frog (Rana luteiventris)

Federal Register | Recovery | Critical Habitat | Conservation Plans | Petitions | Life History

Listing Status:   

General Information

Columbia spotted frogs (Rana Luteiventris) are found from Alaska and most of British Columbia to Washington east of the Cascades, Idaho, and portions of Wyoming, Nevada, and Utah. The Great Basin population range includes eastern Oregon, southwestern Idaho, and the northern drainages of Nevada. In Idaho, it occurs in the mid-elevations of the Owyhee uplands and in southern Twin Falls county. Spotted frogs live in spring seeps, meadows, marshes, ponds and streams, and other areas where there is abundant vegetation. They often migrate along riparian corridors between habitats used for spring breeding, summer foraging and winter hibernation. The Great Basin population of Columbia spotted frogs have a light-colored stripe along the jaw and are light to dark brown or olive on their backs with varying numbers of irregular black spots. The skin texture varies from smooth to rough, and there are folds of skin on their rough backs. The coloration of their underside ranges from white to yellow, and mottling is present to varying degrees. The hind feet are large and have webbing that extends nearly the length of the hind toes. At metamorphosis (changing from tadpole to frog), they range in size from 23 to 33 mm (approximately 0.88 to 1.25 inches). In their third year, they are generally large enough that gender may be determined. As adults, they can vary in size from 50 to 90 mm (2 to 3.5 inches) depending on gender and to some extent, age. The species is currently a candidate species; for listing under the Endangered Species Act. The largest known threat to spotted frogs is habitat alteration and loss, specifically loss of wetlands used for feeding, breeding, hibernating, and migrating. Reduction or loss of habitat can be attributed at least in part to recent drought conditions, spring developments, wetland degradation, water diversions, road construction, dam construction, fire, and loss of native beavers. Other threats include predation by non-native species and diseases. Monitoring activities to assess population trend and distribution are ongoing in the southwestern Idaho portion of species range.

Population detail

The FWS is currently monitoring the following populations of the Columbia Spotted frog 

  • Population location: Great Basin DPS

    Listing status:  Resolved Taxon

    • States/US Territories in which this population is known to or is believed to occur:  Idaho , Nevada , Oregon
    • US Counties in which this population is known to or is believed to occur:  View All
    • USFWS Refuges in which this population is known to occur:  Malheur National Wildlife Refuge
    • Countries in which the this population is known to occur:  United States
  • Population location: main pop.

    Listing status:  Resolved Taxon

    • States/US Territories in which this population is known to or is believed to occur:  Idaho , Oregon
    • US Counties in which this population is known to or is believed to occur:  View All
    • Countries in which the this population is known to occur:  Canada
 
Current Listing Status Summary
Status Date Listed Lead Region Where Listed
California/Nevada Region (Region 8) Great Basin DPS
Mountain-Prairie Region (Region 6) main pop.

» Federal Register Documents

Federal Register Documents
Date Citation Page Title
11/10/2010 75 FR 69222 69294 Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions; Proposed Rule
11/15/1994 59 FR 58982 59028 ETWP; Animal Candidate Review for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species.
09/19/1997 62 FR 49398 49397 Review of Plant and Animal Taxa
10/25/1999 64 FR 57535 57547 Review of Plant and Animal Taxa That Are Candidates or Proposed for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Recycled Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions
12/10/2008 73 FR 75176 75244 Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions; Proposed Rule
10/26/2011 76 FR 66370 66439 Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions
11/17/1995 60 FR 57722 57724 Availability of a Draft Environmental Impact Statement and Receipt of an Application for the Proposed Issuance of a Permit To Allow Incidental Take of Threatened and Endangered Species on Plum Creek Timber Company, L.P., Lands in the I90 Corridor, King and Kittitas Counties, WA
02/28/1996 61 FR 7597 7613 ETWP; Review of Plant and Animal Taxa That Are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species
11/09/2009 74 FR 57804 57878 Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions
12/05/2014 79 FR 72449 72497 Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions
01/08/2001 66 FR 1295 1300 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Annual Notice of Findings on Recycled Petitions
05/07/1993 58 FR 27260 27263 ETWP; Finding on Petition to List the Spotted Frog
10/30/2001 66 FR 54808 54832 ETWP; Review of Plant and Animal Species That Are Candidates or Proposed for Listing as Endangered or Threatened,Annual Notice of Findings on Recycled Petitions, and Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions; Proposed Rule
06/13/2002 67 FR 40657 40679 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Species That Are Candidates or Proposed for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Recycled Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions
05/04/2004 69 FR 24876 24904 Review of Species That Are Candidates or Proposed for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions
09/12/2006 71 FR 53756 53835 Review of Native Species That Are Candidates or Proposed for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions
05/11/2005 70 FR 24870 24934 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Native Species That Are Candidates or Proposed for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions; Proposed Rule
11/22/2013 77 FR 70103 70162 Review of Native Species That are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions
11/21/1991 56 FR 58804 58836 ETWP; Animal Candidate Review for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species; 56 FR 58804 58836
11/21/2012 77 FR 69993 70060 Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions
10/08/2015 80 FR 60834 60850 12-Month Findings on Petitions To List 19 Species as Endangered or Threatened Species: Notice of 12-month petition findings
12/06/2007 72 FR 69034 69106 Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions; Proposed Rule

» Recovery

Other Recovery Documents
Date Citation Page Title Document Type
11/28/1997 62 FR 63375 63376 Notice of Availability of Draft Conservation Agreement for the Wasatch Front and West Desert Populations (Utah) of Spotted Frog (Rana luteiventris) for Review and Comment
  • Notice Doc. Availability

» Critical Habitat

No critical habitat rules have been published for the Columbia Spotted frog.

» Conservation Plans

Habitat Conservation Plans (HCP) (learn more)
HCP Plan Summaries
Plum Creek Timber Central Cascades HCP (aka I-90 HCP)
West Fork Timber HCP (formerly Murray Pacific)
Candidate Conservation Agreements (CCA): (learn more)
CCA Plan Summaries
CAS for Columbia Spotted Frog in the State of Utah
Columbia Spotted Frog Great Basin DPS (Toiyabe Subpopulations)
Columbia Spotted Frog Great Basin DPS (Northeastern Subpopulations)
Candidate Conservation Agreements with Assurances (CCAA): (learn more)
CCAA Plan Summaries
Idaho Department of State Lands Spotted Frog CCAA

» Petitions

» Life History

Habitat Requirements

Columbia spotted frogs are found closely associated with clear, slow-moving or ponded surface waters, with little shade, and relatively constant water temperatures (Munger et al. 1996, p. 8; Reaser 1997a, pp. 32-33; Reaser and Pilliod 2005, p. 561; Welch and MacMahon 2005, p. 477). Reproducing populations have been found in habitats characterized by springs, floating vegetation, and larger bodies of pooled water (e.g., oxbows, lakes, stock ponds, beaver-created ponds, seeps in wet meadows, backwaters) (Reaser and Pilliod 2005, p. 560). A deep silt or muck substrate may be required for hibernation and torpor (a state of lowered physiological activity, usually occurs during colder months) (Bull 2005, p. 12; Reaser and Pilliod 2005, p. 561). In colder portions of their range, Columbia spotted frogs will use areas where water does not freeze, such as spring heads and undercut streambanks with overhanging vegetation (Bull 2005, p. 12; Reaser and Pilliod 2005, p. 561); however, they can overwinter underneath ice-covered ponds (Tattersall and Ultsch 2008, pp. 122-123).

Food Habits

Adult Columbia spotted frogs are opportunistic feeders, consuming many types of insects, mollusks, and even other amphibians (Bull 2005, pp. 16-19; Reaser and Pilliod 2005, p. 561). Bull (2005, pp. 16-19) conducted a diet analysis for populations in northeast Oregon where the most common insects consumed were beetles (21 percent), ants or wasps (21 percent), and flies (10 percent). Tadpoles are grazers which consume algae and detritus (Reaser and Pilliod 2005, p. 560).

Movement / Home Range

While Columbia spotted frogs show strong site fidelity, individuals are capable of travelling relatively large distances of 5 km (3.1 mi) or more if adequate habitat is available (Funk et al. 2005a, p. 2; C. Mellison 2012, unpublished data).

Reproductive Strategy

Males become sexually mature 1-2 years earlier than females, usually at age 2 or 3 (Reaser and Pilliod 2005, p. 561). Columbia spotted frogs employ a scramble mating system in which males race for access to females and there is little opportunity for female choice or male combat (Greene and Funk 2009, p. 244). Females usually lay egg masses in the warmest areas of a pond, typically in shallow water (10-20 cm, 4-8 in), and clutch sizes vary (150-2,400 eggs) (Bull 2005, pp. 8 and 11; Reaser and Pilliod 2005, p. 560; Pearl et al. 2007a, pp. 87-89). Successful egg production and the viability and metamorphosis of Columbia spotted frogs are dependent on habitat variables such as temperature, depth, and pH of water, cover, and the presence or absence of predators (Munger et al. 1996, p. 8; Reaser 1997b, pp. 21-22; Bull 2005, p. 7; Reaser and Pilliod 2005, pp. 561-562).

» Other Resources

NatureServe Explorer Species Reports -- NatureServe Explorer is a source for authoritative conservation information on more than 50,000 plants, animals and ecological communtities of the U.S and Canada. NatureServe Explorer provides in-depth information on rare and endangered species, but includes common plants and animals too. NatureServe Explorer is a product of NatureServe in collaboration with the Natural Heritage Network.

ITIS Reports -- ITIS (the Integrated Taxonomic Information System) is a source for authoritative taxonomic information on plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.

FWS Digital Media Library -- The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library is a searchable collection of selected images, historical artifacts, audio clips, publications, and video.