Chiricahua leopard frog (Lithobates chiricahuensis)

Federal Register | Recovery | Critical Habitat | Conservation Plans | Petitions | Life History

Listing Status:   

Where Listed: WHEREVER FOUND

General Information

A leopard frog with a distinctive color pattern of small, raised, cream-colored spots on the thigh against a dark background with relatively rough skin on the back and sides, dorsolateral folds that are interrupted and deflected medially, and often green on the head and back. A distinctive call (a snore of 1 to 2 seconds duration) also separates this species from other leopard frogs

  • States/US Territories in which the Chiricahua leopard frog, Entire is known to or is believed to occur:  Arizona , New Mexico
  • US Counties in which the Chiricahua leopard frog, Entire is known to or is believed to occur:  View All
  • USFWS Refuges in which the Chiricahua leopard frog, Entire is known to occur:  Buenos Aires National Wildlife Refuge, Leslie Canyon National Wildlife Refuge
  • Countries in which the the Chiricahua leopard frog, Entire is known to occur:  Mexico
  • Additional species information
 
Current Listing Status Summary
Status Date Listed Lead Region Where Listed
06/13/2002 Southwest Region (Region 2) Entire

» Federal Register Documents

Federal Register Documents
Date Citation Page Title
03/20/2012 77 FR 16324 16424 Listing and Designation of Critical Habitat for the Chiricahua Leopard Frog; Final Rule
04/23/2007 72 FR 20134 20136 5-Year Reviews of 24 Southwestern Species
04/12/2006 71 FR 18767 Notice of Availability of the Draft Recovery Plan for the Chiricahua Leopard Frog
10/25/1999 64 FR 57535 57547 Review of Plant and Animal Taxa That Are Candidates or Proposed for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Recycled Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions
03/15/2011 76 FR 14125 14207 Listing and Designation of Critical Habitat for the Chiricahua Leopard Frog; Proposed Rule
06/04/2007 72 FR 30820 30821 Chiricahua Leopard Frog Recovery Plan
11/15/1994 59 FR 58982 59028 ETWP; Animal Candidate Review for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species.
02/28/1996 61 FR 7597 7613 ETWP; Review of Plant and Animal Taxa That Are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species
09/21/2011 76 FR 58441 58455 Proposed Listing and Designation of Critical Habitat for the Chiricahua Leopard Frog: reopening of comment period.
09/19/1997 62 FR 49398 49397 Review of Plant and Animal Taxa
06/13/2002 67 FR 40657 40679 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Species That Are Candidates or Proposed for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Recycled Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions
10/30/2001 66 FR 54808 54832 ETWP; Review of Plant and Animal Species That Are Candidates or Proposed for Listing as Endangered or Threatened,Annual Notice of Findings on Recycled Petitions, and Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions; Proposed Rule
06/14/2000 65 FR 37343 37357 Proposal to List the Chiricahua Leopard Frog as Threatened With a Special Rule
11/21/1991 56 FR 58804 58836 ETWP; Animal Candidate Review for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species; 56 FR 58804 58836
06/13/2002 67 FR 40790 40811 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing of the Chiricahua Leopard Frog (Rana chiricahuensis); Final Rule
Special Rule Publications
Date Citation Page Title
06/14/2000 65 FR 37343 37357 Proposal to List the Chiricahua Leopard Frog as Threatened With a Special Rule
06/13/2002 67 FR 40790 40811 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing of the Chiricahua Leopard Frog (Rana chiricahuensis); Final Rule

» Recovery

Current Recovery Plan(s)
Date Title Plan Action Status Plan Status
03/14/2007 Chiricahua Leopard Frog Recovery Plan View Implementation Progress Final
Other Recovery Documents
Date Citation Page Title Document Type
04/12/2006 71 FR 18767 Notice of Availability of the Draft Recovery Plan for the Chiricahua Leopard Frog
  • Notice Draft Recovery Plan Availability
06/04/2007 72 FR 30820 30821 Chiricahua Leopard Frog Recovery Plan
  • Notice Final Recovery Plan Availability
04/23/2007 72 FR 20134 20136 5-Year Reviews of 24 Southwestern Species
  • Notice 5-year Review, Initiation
Five Year Review
Date Title
01/28/2011 Chiricahua Leopard Frog 5-Year Review

» Critical Habitat

Date Citation Page Title Document Type Status
03/20/2012 77 FR 16324 16424 Listing and Designation of Critical Habitat for the Chiricahua Leopard Frog; Final Rule Final Rule Final designated
03/15/2011 76 FR 14125 14207 Listing and Designation of Critical Habitat for the Chiricahua Leopard Frog; Proposed Rule Proposed Rule Not Required

To learn more about critical habitat please see http://ecos.fws.gov/crithab

» Conservation Plans

Habitat Conservation Plans (HCP) (learn more)
HCP Plan Summaries
Malpai Borderlands
Pima County Multi-Species Conservation Plan, under Sonoran Desert Conservation Plan
Safe Harbor Agreements (SHA): (learn more)
SHA Plan Summaries
Arizona Statewide SHA for Chiricahua leopard frog
Leslie Canyon Watershed SHA (Barboot/99-Ranch)
Malpai Borderlands Group SHA

» Petitions

» Life History

Habitat Requirements

Permanent waters in ponds, tanks, cienegas (wet meadows), and small streams provide habitat. Where water is not permanent, adult frogs may persist but reproduction is likely not successful. Habitats with a variety of plants, depths, in-water structure, and other complexities are desired. Currently restricted to springs, livestock tanks, and streams in upper portion of watersheds that are free from nonnative predators or where marginal habitat for nonnative predators exists. Critical habitat is designated for 10,346 acres in Apache, Cochise, Gila, Graham, Greenlee, Pima, Santa Cruz, and Yavapai counties in Arizona; and Catron, Hidalgo, Grant, Sierra, and Socorro counties in New Mexico (77 FR 16324).

Food Habits

Tadpoles eat vegetative matter, small diatoms, bacteria, and other small foods. Metamorphs and adults will eat aquatic or terrestrial invertebrates and small fish, frogs, or toads.

Movement / Home Range

Frogs may form a metapopulation between nearby (within 5 miles) habitats with adults moving between sites via connecting waters or overland during seasonal rainfall events. Tadpoles may be washed into new habitats by higher streamflows after rains. Typically found between 3,281 and 8,890 feet of elevation.

Reproductive Strategy

Eggs are laid in masses in March through June at elevations below 5900 feet Hatching occurs within a week or two and tadpoles remain in the water. Metamorphosis may occur in 3 to 9 months depending on the temperature of the site and in some sites, tadpoles may overwinter. Adult status is dependent on size rather than age. Frogs are generally inactive from November through February; however, this is regulated by temperature and warmer sites may have more winter actvity.

Other

These frogs are particularly vulnerable to predation and competition by non-native fish, bullfrogs, and crayfish in their habitats. The spread of a chytridomycete skin fungi to leopard frog habitats has also decimated populations. The fungi can be spread by animals like bullfrogs moving between waters, by equipment that can transport infected water between sites, or by vehicles moving between sites with mud or plant material from infected sites on the vehicle. Habitats are at risk from watershed erosion causing sedimentation that reduces forage opportunities, smothers egg mases, or fills in the small tanks where most frog populations remain.

» Other Resources

NatureServe Explorer Species Reports -- NatureServe Explorer is a source for authoritative conservation information on more than 50,000 plants, animals and ecological communtities of the U.S and Canada. NatureServe Explorer provides in-depth information on rare and endangered species, but includes common plants and animals too. NatureServe Explorer is a product of NatureServe in collaboration with the Natural Heritage Network.

ITIS Reports -- ITIS (the Integrated Taxonomic Information System) is a source for authoritative taxonomic information on plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.

FWS Digital Media Library -- The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library is a searchable collection of selected images, historical artifacts, audio clips, publications, and video.