Lahontan cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi)

Federal Register | Recovery | Critical Habitat | Conservation Plans | Petitions | Life History

Listing Status:   

Where Listed: WHEREVER FOUND

  • States/US Territories in which the Lahontan cutthroat trout, Entire is known to or is believed to occur:  California , Nevada , Oregon , Utah
  • US Counties in which the Lahontan cutthroat trout, Entire is known to or is believed to occur:  View All
  • USFWS Refuges in which the Lahontan cutthroat trout, Entire is known to occur:  Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge
  • Countries in which the the Lahontan cutthroat trout, Entire is known to occur:  United States
 
Current Listing Status Summary
Status Date Listed Lead Region Where Listed
10/13/1970 California/Nevada Region (Region 8) Entire

» Federal Register Documents

Federal Register Documents
Date Citation Page Title
04/01/2013 78 FR 19510 19514 Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of 56 Species in California and Nevada; request for information
08/25/1970 35 FR 13519 13520 Notice of Proposed Rule Making (Conservation of Endangered Species and Other Fish or Wildlife)
07/16/1975 40 FR 29863 29864 Threatened Status for Three Species of Trout; 40 FR 29863 29864 (Lahontan cutthroat, Salmo clarki henshawi; Paiute cutthroat, Salmo clarki seleniris; Arizona trout, Salmo apache)
02/14/2007 72 FR 7064 7084 Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of 58 Species in California and Nevada; Availability of Completed 5-Year Reviews in California and Nevada
04/23/1975 40 FR 17847 17848 Proposed Threatened Status for 3 Species of Trout (3); 50 CFR Part 17; 40 FR 17847 17848 (Lahontan cutthroat, Paiute cutthroat, Arizona trout, Salmo clarki henshawi, Salmo clarki seleniris, Salmo apache)
10/13/1970 35 FR 16047 16048 Appendix D - United States List of Endangered Native Fish and Wildlife; 35 FR 16047 16048
08/30/1985 50 FR 35272 35273 Notice of Findings on 2 Petitions & Review of 2 Species; 50 FR 35272- 35273
06/01/1994 59 FR 28329 28330 ETWP; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to Delist the Lahontan Cutthroat Trout (Onchorynchus clarki henshawi) Within the Humboldt River Drainage Basin in Nevada
09/09/2008 73 FR 52257 52260 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Delist the Lahontan Cutthroat Trout
08/20/1986 51 FR 29671 29673 Findings on Petitions & Initiation of Status Reviews; 51 FR 29671-29673
05/21/2010 75 FR 28636 28642 Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of 34 Species in California and Nevada; Availability of 96 Completed 5-Year Reviews in California and Nevada
03/07/2005 70 FR 11022 11024 Preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement for Issuance of an Incidental Take Permit Associated with a Habitat Conservation Plan for Western Placer County, CA
Special Rule Publications
Date Citation Page Title
07/16/1975 40 FR 29863 29864 Threatened Status for Three Species of Trout; 40 FR 29863 29864 (Lahontan cutthroat, Salmo clarki henshawi; Paiute cutthroat, Salmo clarki seleniris; Arizona trout, Salmo apache)
04/23/1975 40 FR 17847 17848 Proposed Threatened Status for 3 Species of Trout (3); 50 CFR Part 17; 40 FR 17847 17848 (Lahontan cutthroat, Paiute cutthroat, Arizona trout, Salmo clarki henshawi, Salmo clarki seleniris, Salmo apache)

» Recovery

Current Recovery Plan(s)
Date Title Plan Action Status Plan Status
01/30/1995 Lahontan Cutthroat Trout (Oncorhynchus clarki henshawi) Recovery Plan View Implementation Progress Final
Other Recovery Documents
Date Citation Page Title Document Type
02/14/2007 72 FR 7064 7084 Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of 58 Species in California and Nevada; Availability of Completed 5-Year Reviews in California and Nevada
  • Notice 5-year Review, Initiation
04/01/2013 78 FR 19510 19514 Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of 56 Species in California and Nevada; request for information
  • Notice 5-year Review, Initiation
05/21/2010 75 FR 28636 28642 Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of 34 Species in California and Nevada; Availability of 96 Completed 5-Year Reviews in California and Nevada
  • Notice 5-year Review, Completion
Five Year Review
Date Title
03/30/2009 Lahontan Cutthroat Trout 5-Year Review

» Critical Habitat

No critical habitat rules have been published for the Lahontan cutthroat trout.

» Conservation Plans

Safe Harbor Agreements (SHA): (learn more)
SHA Plan Summaries
Lahontan Cutthroat Trout Humboldt DPS
Lahontan Cutthroat Trout Northwest DPS
ODFW Lahontan cutthroat trout SHA
Candidate Conservation Agreements (CCA): (learn more)
CCA Plan Summaries
Spring Mountains National Recreation Area

» Petitions

» Life History

Habitat Requirements

Specific habitat requirements for cutthroat trout are described in Hickman and Raleigh (1982, pp. 3-7) and summarized below. Optimal stream habitat is characterized by clear, cold water with silt-free substrate and a 1:1 pool-riffle ratio. Streams should have a variety of habitats including areas with slow deep water, abundant instream cover (i.e., large woody debris, boulders, undercut banks), and relatively stable streamflow and temperature regimes. Streambanks should be well vegetated to provide cover, shade, and bank stabilization. Lacustrine LCT populations have adapted to a wide variety of lake habitats from oligotrophic (with low nutrient levels and primary productivity) alpine lakes (e.g., Independence Lake) to large, productive desert terminal lakes (e.g., Pyramid Lake). Unlike most freshwater fish species, LCT have been reported to tolerate alkalinity and total dissolved solid levels as high as 3,000 milligrams/liter (mg/L) (3,000 parts per million (ppm)) and 10,000 mg/L (10,000 ppm), respectively (Dickerson and Vinyard 1999a, pp. 510-514).

Food Habits

Stream-resident LCT are opportunistic feeders, with diets consisting of drift organisms, typically terrestrial and aquatic insects (Moyle 2002, p. 290; Dunham et al. 2000, p. 308). Recent literature has documented the importance of terrestrial insects in the diet of stream salmonids (Baxter et al. 2005, pp. 201-214). In lakes, small LCT feed largely on insects and zooplankton (Calhoun 1942, pp. 197-199; McAfee 1966, p. 228; Lea 1968, pp. 59-63), and larger LCT become piscivorous. In Pyramid Lake, fish enter the diet when LCT reach 200 mm (7.9 in) in length, comprise over 50 percent of the diet at 300 mm (11.8 in), and represent almost 100 percent of the diet when LCT are over 500 mm (19.7 in) (Sigler et al. 1983, p. 16).

Reproductive Strategy

Lahontan cutthroat trout inhabit lakes and streams, but are obligatory stream spawners. Distance traveled to spawning sites varies with stream size and strain of LCT (strain refers to locally adapted populations in a particular area or environment). Populations in Pyramid and Winnemucca Lakes migrated as far as 160 kilometers (km) (100 miles (mi)) up the Truckee River into Lake Tahoe and its tributary streams (Sumner 1940, p. 217; Peacock and Kirchoff 2007, pp. 74-75). Small, intermittent, tributary streams and headwater reaches are sometimes used as spawning sites (Coffin 1981, p. 31). Spawning generally occurs from April through July, depending upon stream flow, elevation, and water temperature (McAfee 1966, p. 227; Lea 1968, pp. 68-69; Moyle 2002, p. 291; Rissler et al. 2006, pp. 13-15). LCT in fluvial environments generally become sexually mature around year three (Ray et al. 2007, p. 40) while LCT in lacustrine environments become sexually mature between 3 and 4 years of age (Rissler et al. 2006, p. 35). The Pilot Peak broodstock, derived from the Pilot Peak range in Utah and now known to have originated from the Truckee River watershed, sexually matures between 3 and 4 years with less than 10 percent maturing at age 5 and above (Jay Bigelow 2009, personal communication).

» Other Resources

NatureServe Explorer Species Reports -- NatureServe Explorer is a source for authoritative conservation information on more than 50,000 plants, animals and ecological communtities of the U.S and Canada. NatureServe Explorer provides in-depth information on rare and endangered species, but includes common plants and animals too. NatureServe Explorer is a product of NatureServe in collaboration with the Natural Heritage Network.

ITIS Reports -- ITIS (the Integrated Taxonomic Information System) is a source for authoritative taxonomic information on plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.

FWS Digital Media Library -- The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library is a searchable collection of selected images, historical artifacts, audio clips, publications, and video.