Modoc Sucker (Catostomus microps)

Federal Register | Recovery | Critical Habitat | Conservation Plans | Petitions | Life History

Listing Status:   

General Information

Modoc suckers are small, usually less than 6 inches (16 cm) standard length, with short heads and small eyes (Moyle 2002). Maximum size is 11 inches (28 cm). Lateral line scales number 73-91. Scales above the lateral line number usually number 15 (range = 14-19); those below the lateral line number 9-12. Dorsal fin rays number 9-12; anal fin rays 7; pelvic fins 8-10 (Kettratad 2001, Moyle 2002). The lower lip is deeply notched, with only one of the 5-6 rows of papillae connecting the two haves (Moyle 2002). The non-breeding color of both sexes is greenish-brown through bluish to deep-grey and olive, and the sides are lighter with generalized mottling and usually with 3-4 darker blotches, and is similar to Sacramento suckers of similar size. The belly is white to cream or yellowish and unmarked. Breeding males have a reddish-orange lateral band, and orange fins; tubercles develop on fins and body.

  • States/US Territories in which the Modoc Sucker, Wherever found is known to or is believed to occur:  California , Oregon
  • US Counties in which the Modoc Sucker, Wherever found is known to or is believed to occur:  View All
  • Countries in which the the Modoc Sucker, Wherever found is known to occur:  United States
 
Current Listing Status Summary
Status Date Listed Lead Region Where Listed
1985-06-11 California/Nevada Region (Region 8) Wherever found

» Federal Register Documents

Federal Register Documents
Date Citation Page Title
1985-06-11 00:00:00.0 50 FR 24526 24530 Determination of End. Status & Crit. Hab. for Modoc Sucker; 50 FR 24526- 24530
2014-02-13 00:00:00.0 79 FR 8656 8667 Proposed rule to Delist the Modoc Sucker and 12-month petition finding and notice of availability of draft post-delisting monitoring plan.
2015-12-08 00:00:00.0 80 FR 76235 76249 Removal of the Modoc Sucker From the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; Final Rule
1984-07-13 00:00:00.0 49 FR 28583 28585 Notice of Finding on 6 Petitions; 49 FR 28583-28585
1982-12-30 00:00:00.0 47 FR 58454 58460 Review of Vertebrate Wildlife for Listing as End. or Thr. Species
1984-01-31 00:00:00.0 49 FR 3892 3895 Proposed End. Status & Crit. Hab. for Modoc Sucker (Catostomus microps); 49 FR 3892-3895
1983-06-14 00:00:00.0 48 FR 27273 27274 Findings on Certain Petitions; 48 FR 27273-27274
2015-02-13 00:00:00.0 80 FR 8053 8054 Reopening of Comment Period on Proposed Rule to Remove the Modoc Sucker From the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife
2010-05-21 00:00:00.0 75 FR 28636 28642 Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of 34 Species in California and Nevada; Availability of 96 Completed 5-Year Reviews in California and Nevada
2012-06-04 00:00:00.0 77 FR 32922 32927 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Delist or Reclassify From Endangered to Threatened Six California Species; Initiation of Status Reviews
2006-03-22 00:00:00.0 71 FR 14538 14542 Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of 56 Species in California and Nevada: Notice of review.

» Recovery

Current Recovery Plan(s)
Date Title Plan Action Status Plan Status
1984-05-08 Action Plan for Recovery of the Modoc Sucker (Catostomus microps) View Implementation Progress Conservation Strategy
Other Recovery Documents
Date Citation Page Title Document Type
2015-12-08 80 FR 76235 76249 Removal of the Modoc Sucker From the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; Final Rule
  • Final Delisting, Recovered
  • Notice Doc. Availability, Final Post Delisting Monitoring Plan
2014-02-13 79 FR 8656 8667 Proposed rule to Delist the Modoc Sucker and 12-month petition finding and notice of availability of draft post-delisting monitoring plan.
  • Notice 12 month petition finding, Warranted
  • Notice Doc. Availability, Draft Post Delisting Monitoring Plan
  • Proposed Delisting, Recovered
2006-03-22 71 FR 14538 14542 Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of 56 Species in California and Nevada: Notice of review.
  • Notice 5-year Review
2010-05-21 75 FR 28636 28642 Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of 34 Species in California and Nevada; Availability of 96 Completed 5-Year Reviews in California and Nevada
  • Notice 5-year Review, Completion
Five Year Review
Date Title
2009-08-17 Modoc Sucker 5-Year Review
Delisting Documents
Date Title
2015-08-03 Modoc sucker (Catostomus microps) Post-Delisting Monitoring Plan
2014-02-14 Modoc sucker (Catostomus microps) Draft Post-Delisting Monitoring Plan

» Critical Habitat

Date Citation Page Title Document Type Status
1985-06-11 50 FR 24526 24530 Determination of End. Status & Crit. Hab. for Modoc Sucker; 50 FR 24526- 24530 Final Rule Final designated
1984-01-31 49 FR 3892 3895 Proposed End. Status & Crit. Hab. for Modoc Sucker (Catostomus microps); 49 FR 3892-3895 Proposed Rule Not Required

To learn more about critical habitat please see http://ecos.fws.gov/crithab

» Conservation Plans

No conservation plans have been created for Modoc Sucker.

» Petitions

» Life History

Habitat Requirements

Modoc suckers are primarily found in mud and rock bottom pools in small streams and occupy an intermediate zone between the high-gradient and higher elevation, coldwater trout zone and the low-gradient and low elevation, warm-water fish zone (Reid 2008). The elevational range of the Modoc sucker is from about 4,200 to 5,000 feet in the upper Pit River drainage (Ash and Turner Creeks) and from about 4,700 to 5,800 feet in the Goose Lake sub-basin (Reid 2008). Cover consists of overhanging banks, larger rocks, woody debris, and aquatic rooted vegetation or filamentous algae. Larvae occupy shallow, vegetated margins and juveniles tend to remain free-swimming in the shallows of large pools, particularly near vegetated areas, while larger juveniles and adults remain mostly on, or close to, the bottom (Moyle and Marciochi 1975).

Food Habits

Modoc suckers feed on algae, aquatic insects, and small crustaceans found in mud or in algal filaments (Moyle 2002). Chironomid (midge) larvae may be especially important in the diet, but the jaw structure suggests specializations for scraping algae from rocks.

Movement / Home Range

Modoc suckers likely do not move large distances but do move upstream to spawn and move downstream when water levels drop in summer.

Reproductive Strategy

Both sexes mature in their third year at a length of about 5 inches (12 cm; Moyle 2002). Spawning occurs in gravel at the lower end of pools or in riffles in small tributaries, including those that are intermittent, from mid-April to early June when water temperatures are 56 to 61°F (13-16 °C). Several males position themselves on each side of the female and eggs and sperm are released. The fertilized eggs fall into the gaps in the gravel. Females produce up to 12,000 eggs per season (Moyle 2002).

Other

A greater understanding of the genetic relationships and natural gene flow between the Modoc sucker and Sacramento sucker has reduced concerns over hybridization between the two species (Reid 2008; USFWS 2009). The most significant threat to the Modoc sucker is nonnative predatory fish, especially largemouth bass and brown trout.

» Other Resources

NatureServe Explorer Species Reports -- NatureServe Explorer is a source for authoritative conservation information on more than 50,000 plants, animals and ecological communtities of the U.S and Canada. NatureServe Explorer provides in-depth information on rare and endangered species, but includes common plants and animals too. NatureServe Explorer is a product of NatureServe in collaboration with the Natural Heritage Network.

ITIS Reports -- ITIS (the Integrated Taxonomic Information System) is a source for authoritative taxonomic information on plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.

FWS Digital Media Library -- The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library is a searchable collection of selected images, historical artifacts, audio clips, publications, and video.