Arkansas darter (Etheostoma cragini)

Candidate Info | Federal Register | Conservation Plans | Petitions | Life History

Listing Status:   

General Information

The Arkansas darter is a small, 2.5 inch fish in the perch family native to portions of the Arkansas River basin. Its upper body is brown, and its back has many fine, black specks. It has a dark, vertical wedge-shaped spot beneath its eye. Its body has 12 to 14 dusky stripes along the sides. Its belly is nearly white, except in breeding males in which it becomes bright orange. The Arkansas darterís range includes sites in extreme northwestern Arkansas, southwestern Missouri, and northeastern Oklahoma, within the Neosho River watershed. It also occurs in a number of watersheds and isolated streams in eastern Colorado, south-central and southwestern Kansas, and the Cimarron watershed in northwest Oklahoma.

  • States/US Territories in which the Arkansas darter is known to or is believed to occur:  Arkansas , Colorado , Kansas , Missouri , Oklahoma
  • US Counties in which the Arkansas darter is known to or is believed to occur:  View All
  • USFWS Refuges in which the Arkansas darter is known to occur:  Quivira National Wildlife Refuge
 
Current Listing Status Summary
Status Date Listed Lead Region Where Listed
Mountain-Prairie Region (Region 6)

» Candidate Information

Candidate Assessments
Candidate Notice of Review Documents
Date Citation Page Title
10/30/2001 ETWP; Review of Plant and Animal Species That Are Candidates or Proposed for Listing as Endangered or Threatened,Annual Notice of Findings on Recycled Petitions, and Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions; Proposed Rule
01/06/1989 ETWP; Animal Notice of Review; 54 FR 554 579
09/19/1997 Review of Plant and Animal Taxa
10/26/2011 Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions
12/05/2014 Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions
06/13/2002 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Species That Are Candidates or Proposed for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Recycled Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions
09/12/2006 Review of Native Species That Are Candidates or Proposed for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions
11/22/2013 Review of Native Species That are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions
11/21/2012 Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions
05/04/2004 Review of Species That Are Candidates or Proposed for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions
12/10/2008 Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions; Proposed Rule
11/10/2010 Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions; Proposed Rule
11/21/1991 ETWP; Animal Candidate Review for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species; 56 FR 58804 58836
02/28/1996 ETWP; Review of Plant and Animal Taxa That Are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species
05/11/2005 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Native Species That Are Candidates or Proposed for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions; Proposed Rule
12/24/2015 Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions
10/25/1999 Review of Plant and Animal Taxa That Are Candidates or Proposed for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Recycled Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions
11/15/1994 ETWP; Animal Candidate Review for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species.

» Federal Register Documents

Federal Register Documents
Date Citation Page Title
05/11/2005 70 FR 24870 24934 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Native Species That Are Candidates or Proposed for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions; Proposed Rule
02/28/1996 61 FR 7597 7613 ETWP; Review of Plant and Animal Taxa That Are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species
01/06/1989 54 FR 554 579 ETWP; Animal Notice of Review; 54 FR 554 579
10/25/1999 64 FR 57535 57547 Review of Plant and Animal Taxa That Are Candidates or Proposed for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Recycled Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions
12/24/2015 80 FR 80583 80614 Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions
09/19/1997 62 FR 49398 49397 Review of Plant and Animal Taxa
12/10/2008 73 FR 75176 75244 Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions; Proposed Rule
11/21/1991 56 FR 58804 58836 ETWP; Animal Candidate Review for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species; 56 FR 58804 58836
06/13/2002 67 FR 40657 40679 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Species That Are Candidates or Proposed for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Recycled Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions
09/12/2006 71 FR 53756 53835 Review of Native Species That Are Candidates or Proposed for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions
10/30/2001 66 FR 54808 54832 ETWP; Review of Plant and Animal Species That Are Candidates or Proposed for Listing as Endangered or Threatened,Annual Notice of Findings on Recycled Petitions, and Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions; Proposed Rule
11/10/2010 75 FR 69222 69294 Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions; Proposed Rule
11/21/2012 77 FR 69993 70060 Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions
10/26/2011 76 FR 66370 66439 Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions
11/15/1994 59 FR 58982 59028 ETWP; Animal Candidate Review for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species.
05/04/2004 69 FR 24876 24904 Review of Species That Are Candidates or Proposed for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions
12/05/2014 79 FR 72449 72497 Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions
11/22/2013 77 FR 70103 70162 Review of Native Species That are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions

» Conservation Plans

No conservation plans have been created for Arkansas darter.

» Petitions

» Life History

Habitat Requirements

The Arkansas darter prefers shallow, clear, cool water, sand or silt bottom streams with spring-fed pools and abundant rooted aquatic vegetation. During late summer low-water periods when streams may become intermittent, Arkansas darter populations in Colorado persist in large, deep pools.

Food Habits

Arkansas darters feed on a variety of aquatic insects, primarily mayflies, and some plant material, including small seeds.

Movement / Home Range

Research suggests that the dynamics of movement as it relates to the life history of Arkansas darters is quite complex. Arkansas darters have been found to move both upstream and downstream within a stream reach. Increased precipitation in one year on Big Sandy Creek in eastern Colorado lead to high flows that allowed Arkansas darter to move 2.5-3.3 km downstream to habitat that was previously disconnected.

Reproductive Strategy

Arkansas darters are sexually mature in one year or less. Darters spawn throughout spring and summer, in shallow water over a bottom of coarse gravel. Eggs are usually deposited in open areas, on organic material that covers a sandy streambed.

Other

Threats to the Arkansas darter include stream dewatering resulting from groundwater pumping in the western portion of the species' range, and potential development pressures in portions of its eastern range. These conditions can be exacerbated by localized drought. Spills and runoff from confined animal feeding operations also potentially affect the species range-wide.

» Other Resources

NatureServe Explorer Species Reports -- NatureServe Explorer is a source for authoritative conservation information on more than 50,000 plants, animals and ecological communtities of the U.S and Canada. NatureServe Explorer provides in-depth information on rare and endangered species, but includes common plants and animals too. NatureServe Explorer is a product of NatureServe in collaboration with the Natural Heritage Network.

ITIS Reports -- ITIS (the Integrated Taxonomic Information System) is a source for authoritative taxonomic information on plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.

FWS Digital Media Library -- The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library is a searchable collection of selected images, historical artifacts, audio clips, publications, and video.