steelhead (Oncorhynchus (=salmo) mykiss)

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Listing Status:  (and others listed below)

General Information

Steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) belong to the family Salmonidae which includes all salmon, trout, and chars. Steelhead are similar to some Pacific salmon in their life cycle and ecological requirements. They are born in fresh water streams, where they spend their first 1-3 years of life. They then emigrate to the ocean where most of their growth occurs. After spending between one to four growing seasons in the ocean, steelhead return to their native fresh water stream to spawn. Unlike Pacific salmon, steelhead do not necessarily die after spawning and are able to spawn more than once.

Population detail

The FWS is currently monitoring the following populations of the steelhead 

  • Population location: Southern California DPS - See 50 CFR 224.101

    Listing status:  Endangered

    • States/US Territories in which this population is known to or is believed to occur:  California
    • US Counties in which this population is known to or is believed to occur:  View All
    • USFWS Refuges in which this population is known to occur:  San Joaquin River National Wildlife Refuge
  • Population location: Upper Willamette River DPS - See 50 CFR 223.102

    Listing status:  Threatened

    • States/US Territories in which this population is known to or is believed to occur:  Oregon , Washington
    • US Counties in which this population is known to or is believed to occur:  View All
    • USFWS Refuges in which this population is known to occur:  Ankeny National Wildlife Refuge, Julia Butler Hansen Refuge for the Columbian White-Tailed Deer, Lewis and Clark National Wildlife Refuge, Tualatin River National Wildlife Refuge, William L. Finley National Wildlife Refuge
  • Population location: South-Central California Coast DPS - See 50 CFR 223.102

    Listing status:  Threatened

  • Population location: Lower Columbia River DPS - See 50 CFR 223.102

    Listing status:  Threatened

    • States/US Territories in which this population is known to or is believed to occur:  Oregon , Washington
    • US Counties in which this population is known to or is believed to occur:  View All
    • USFWS Refuges in which this population is known to occur:  Franz Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Julia Butler Hansen Refuge for the Columbian White-Tailed Deer, Lewis and Clark National Wildlife Refuge, Pierce National Wildlife Refuge, Ridgefield National Wildlife Refuge  ... Show All Refuges
  • Population location: Central California Coast DPS - See 50 CFR 223.102

    Listing status:  Threatened

    • States/US Territories in which this population is known to or is believed to occur:  California
    • US Counties in which this population is known to or is believed to occur:  View All
    • USFWS Refuges in which this population is known to occur:  Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Salinas River National Wildlife Refuge
  • Population location: Puget Sound DPS - See 50 CFR 223.102

    Listing status:  Threatened

    • States/US Territories in which this population is known to or is believed to occur:  Washington
    • US Counties in which this population is known to or is believed to occur:  View All
    • USFWS Refuges in which this population is known to occur:  Billy Frank Jr. Nisqually National Wildlife Refuge
  • Population location: California Central Valley DPS - See 50 CFR 223.102

    Listing status:  Threatened

    • USFWS Refuges in which this population is known to occur:  Butte Sink Wildlife Management Area, North Central Valley Wildlife Management Area, Sacramento River National Wildlife Refuge, Sutter National Wildlife Refuge
  • Population location: Northern California DPS - See 50 CFR 223.102

    Listing status:  Threatened

    • States/US Territories in which this population is known to or is believed to occur:  California
    • US Counties in which this population is known to or is believed to occur:  View All
    • USFWS Refuges in which this population is known to occur:  Humboldt Bay National Wildlife Refuge
  • Population location: Middle Columbia River DPS - See 50 CFR 223.102

    Listing status:  Threatened

    • States/US Territories in which this population is known to or is believed to occur:  Oregon
    • US Counties in which this population is known to or is believed to occur:  View All
    • USFWS Refuges in which this population is known to occur:  Hanford Reach National Monument/Saddle Mountain National Wildlife Refuge, Julia Butler Hansen Refuge for the Columbian White-Tailed Deer, Lewis and Clark National Wildlife Refuge, Mcnary National Wildlife Refuge, Toppenish National Wildlife Refuge  ... Show All Refuges
  • Population location: Upper Columbia River DPS - See 50 CFR 223.102

    Listing status:  Threatened

    • States/US Territories in which this population is known to or is believed to occur:  Washington
    • US Counties in which this population is known to or is believed to occur:  View All
    • USFWS Refuges in which this population is known to occur:  Columbia National Wildlife Refuge, Hanford Reach National Monument/Saddle Mountain National Wildlife Refuge, Julia Butler Hansen Refuge for the Columbian White-Tailed Deer, Lewis and Clark National Wildlife Refuge, Mcnary National Wildlife Refuge  ... Show All Refuges
  • Population location: Snake River Basin DPS - See 50 CFR 223.102

    Listing status:  Threatened

    • States/US Territories in which this population is known to or is believed to occur:  Oregon , Washington
    • US Counties in which this population is known to or is believed to occur:  View All
    • USFWS Refuges in which this population is known to occur:  Julia Butler Hansen Refuge for the Columbian White-Tailed Deer, Lewis and Clark National Wildlife Refuge, Mcnary National Wildlife Refuge, Umatilla National Wildlife Refuge
  • Population location: Middle Columbia River DPS - XN - See 50 CFR 223.102

    Listing status:  Experimental Population, Non-Essential

  • Population location: Klamath Mountains Province steelhead(Oncorhynchus mykiss).Includes all Naturally spawned populations of Steelhead (and their progeny) in coastal river basins ranging from the Elk River in Curry County, Oregon, to the Klamath River, inclusive, in Del Norte County, California

    Listing status:  Under Review

    • States/US Territories in which this population is known to or is believed to occur:  California , Oregon
    • US Counties in which this population is known to or is believed to occur:  View All
 
Current Listing Status Summary
Status Date Listed Lead Region Where Listed
1998-06-17 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Southern California DPS - See 50 CFR 224.101
1999-08-02 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Upper Willamette River DPS - See 50 CFR 223.102
1998-06-17 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) South-Central California Coast DPS - See 50 CFR 223.102
1998-06-17 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Lower Columbia River DPS - See 50 CFR 223.102
1998-06-17 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Central California Coast DPS - See 50 CFR 223.102
2007-05-07 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Puget Sound DPS - See 50 CFR 223.102
1998-06-17 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) California Central Valley DPS - See 50 CFR 223.102
2000-08-07 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Northern California DPS - See 50 CFR 223.102
1999-08-02 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Middle Columbia River DPS - See 50 CFR 223.102
1998-06-17 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Upper Columbia River DPS - See 50 CFR 223.102
1998-06-17 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Snake River Basin DPS - See 50 CFR 223.102
2013-01-15 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Middle Columbia River DPS - XN - See 50 CFR 223.102
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Klamath Mountains Province steelhead(Oncorhynchus mykiss).Includes all Naturally spawned populations of Steelhead (and their progeny) in coastal river basins ranging from the Elk River in Curry County, Oregon, to the Klamath River, inclusive, in Del Norte County, California

» Candidate Information

Candidate Notice of Review Documents
Date Citation Page Title
1994-11-15 ETWP; Animal Candidate Review for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species.
1991-11-21 ETWP; Animal Candidate Review for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species; 56 FR 58804 58836

» Federal Register Documents

Federal Register Documents
Date Citation Page Title
1999-12-30 00:00:00.0 64 FR 73479 73506 Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Rule Governing Take of Threatened Snake River, Central California Coast, South/Central California Coast, Lower Columbia River, Central Valley California, Middle Columbia River, and Upper Willamette River Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESUs) of West Coast Steelhead
1994-11-15 00:00:00.0 59 FR 58982 59028 ETWP; Animal Candidate Review for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species.
2006-01-05 00:00:00.0 71 FR 834 862 Endangered and Threatened Species: Final Listing Determinations for 10 Distinct Population Segments of West Coast Steelhead; Final Rule
2000-02-16 00:00:00.0 65 FR 7764 7787 (NOAA/NMFS) Designated Critical Habitat: Critical Habitat for 19 Evolutionarily Significant Units of Salmon and Steelhead in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and California
2000-06-07 00:00:00.0 65 FR 36075 36094 Threatened Status for One Steelhead Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) in California
2000-09-07 00:00:00.0 65 FR 54177 54178 Determination of Threatened Status for One Steelhead Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) in California
2001-05-07 00:00:00.0 66 FR 23004 23005 NOAA/NMFS; Notice of availability and Request for Comment on the Fisheries Management and Evaluation Plan for the upper Willamette River Steelhead.
2014-07-23 00:00:00.0 79 FR 42687 42696 Marine and Anadromous Taxa: Additions, Removal, Updates,and Corrections to the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife
2005-07-25 00:00:00.0 70 FR 42533 42535 Notice of Intent to Conduct Public Scoping Meetings and to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement Related to the Family Forest Habitat Conservation Plan
1998-06-17 00:00:00.0 63 FR 32996 32998 ETWP; Listing of Several Evolutionarily Significant Units of West Coast Steelhead
1999-08-02 00:00:00.0 64 FR 41835 41839 ETWP; Listing of Nine Evolutionarily Significant Units of Chinook Salmon, Chum Salmon, Sockeye Salmon, and Steelhead
2016-11-02 00:00:00.0 81 FR 76311 76314 Adding Ten Species and Updating Five Species on the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; Final rule.
2005-11-15 00:00:00.0 70 FR 69348 69350 Notice of Intent to Conduct Public Scoping Meetings and to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement Related to the Bi-State Water Diversion Habitat Conservation Plan for the Walla Walla River Basin
1999-01-20 00:00:00.0 64 FR 3066 3067 Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement Regarding Proposed Issuance of an Incidental Take Permit to the City of Tacoma, Washington, for Water Storage and Withdrawal and Forest Management in the Green River Watershed, King County, Washington
2001-02-12 00:00:00.0 66 FR 9808 9813 Endangered and Threatened Species: Threatened Status for One Evolutionarily Significant Unit of Steelhead in California and Oregon
2001-04-04 00:00:00.0 66 FR 17845 17856 Endangered and Threatened Species: Final Listing Determination for Klamath Mountains Province Steelhead
1991-11-21 00:00:00.0 56 FR 58804 58836 ETWP; Animal Candidate Review for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species; 56 FR 58804 58836
2001-05-04 00:00:00.0 66 FR 22532 22533 NOAA/NMFS Notice of Availability and Request for Comment; Four fisheries Management and Evaluation Plans (FMEP)for the Middle Columbia River Steelhead
2011-03-29 00:00:00.0 76 FR 17434 17439 Receipt of Application for an Endangered Species Act Incidental Take Permit
1999-02-05 00:00:00.0 64 FR 5740 5754 Designated Critical Habitat: Proposed Critical Habitat for Nine Evolutionarily Significant Units of Steelhead in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and California
2004-05-17 00:00:00.0 69 FR 27949 27950 Issuance of Permits
2008-03-05 00:00:00.0 73 FR 11870 11871 Availability of a Draft Environmental Assessment/Habitat Conservation Plan, and Receipt of Applications for Incidental Take Permits from the Broughton Land Company, Columbia County, Washington
1999-12-17 00:00:00.0 64 FR 70695 70697 Availability of a Draft Environmental Impact Statement and Receipt of an Application for an Incidental Take Permit Submitted by Plum Creek Timberlands, L.P., (and its partners Plum Creek Timber Company, Inc. and Plum Creek Timber I L.L.C.), Plum Creek Marketing Inc., Plum Creek Land Company, Plum Creek Northwest Lumber, Inc., Plum Creek Northwest Plywood, Inc., and Plum Creek MDF, Inc., for Lands in Montana, Idaho, and Washington
2001-05-04 00:00:00.0 66 FR 22533 22534 NOAA/NMFS Notice of Availability and Request for Comment; Management and Evaluation Plans (FMEP)for the Snake River Steelhead
2003-11-28 00:00:00.0 68 FR 66820 66821 Final Environmental Impact Statement for an Incidental Take Permit Application and Habitat Conservation Plan (Plan), by J.L. Storedahl and Sons, Inc. (Storedahl), Clark County, WA
2000-02-11 00:00:00.0 65 FR 6960 6975 Threatened Status for One Evolutionarily Significant Unit of Steelhead in California
2000-09-21 00:00:00.0 65 FR 57170 57171 Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement and Habitat Conservation Plan for Incidental Take
2001-05-04 00:00:00.0 66 FR 22534 22535 NOAA/NMFS Notice of Availability and Request for Comment; Fisheries Management and Evaluation Plans (FMEP)for the Lower Columbia River Steelhead
2000-07-10 00:00:00.0 65 FR 42422 42481 Endangered and Threatened Species; Final Rule Governing Take of 14 Threatened Salmon and Steelhead Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESUs)
2005-09-02 00:00:00.0 70 FR 52488 52627 Designation of Critical Habitat for Seven Evolutionarily Significant Units of Pacific Salmon and Steelhead in California
2000-03-15 00:00:00.0 65 FR 13947 13948 Extension of Public Comment Period for Draft Environmental Impact Statement and Application for an Incidental Take Permit for the Tacoma Water Department, Green River Watershed, Habitat Conservation Plan, King County, Washington
2002-11-22 00:00:00.0 67 FR 40708 40709 Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for an Incidental Take Permit Application and Habitat Conservation Plan
2000-01-31 00:00:00.0 4603 Availability of a Draft Environmental Impact Statement and Receipt of an Application for Incidental Take Permits for the Tacoma Water Department, Green River Watershed, Habitat Conservation Plan, King County, Washington
2001-01-05 00:00:00.0 66 FR 1089 1091 Availability of a Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Tacoma Water Department Habitat Conservation Plan, King County, WA
Special Rule Publications
Date Citation Page Title
2000-07-10 00:00:00.0 65 FR 42422 42481 Endangered and Threatened Species; Final Rule Governing Take of 14 Threatened Salmon and Steelhead Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESUs)
1999-12-30 00:00:00.0 64 FR 73479 73506 Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Rule Governing Take of Threatened Snake River, Central California Coast, South/Central California Coast, Lower Columbia River, Central Valley California, Middle Columbia River, and Upper Willamette River Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESUs) of West Coast Steelhead

» Recovery

Other Recovery Documents
Date Citation Page Title Document Type
2001-05-07 66 FR 23004 23005 NOAA/NMFS; Notice of availability and Request for Comment on the Fisheries Management and Evaluation Plan for the upper Willamette River Steelhead.
  • Notice Doc. Availability
  • Notice NMFS Notice
  • Notice Request for Comment
2001-05-04 66 FR 22533 22534 NOAA/NMFS Notice of Availability and Request for Comment; Management and Evaluation Plans (FMEP)for the Snake River Steelhead
  • Notice Doc. Availability
  • Notice NMFS Notice
  • Notice Request for Comment
2001-05-04 66 FR 22532 22533 NOAA/NMFS Notice of Availability and Request for Comment; Four fisheries Management and Evaluation Plans (FMEP)for the Middle Columbia River Steelhead
  • Notice Doc. Availability
  • Notice NMFS Notice
  • Notice Request for Comment
2001-05-04 66 FR 22534 22535 NOAA/NMFS Notice of Availability and Request for Comment; Fisheries Management and Evaluation Plans (FMEP)for the Lower Columbia River Steelhead
  • Notice Doc. Availability
  • Notice NMFS Notice
  • Notice Request for Comment

» Critical Habitat

Date Citation Page Title Document Type Status
2016-11-02 81 FR 76311 76314 Adding Ten Species and Updating Five Species on the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; Final rule. Final Rule Final designated
2005-09-02 70 FR 52488 52627 Designation of Critical Habitat for Seven Evolutionarily Significant Units of Pacific Salmon and Steelhead in California Final Rule Final designated
2000-02-16 65 FR 7764 7787 (NOAA/NMFS) Designated Critical Habitat: Critical Habitat for 19 Evolutionarily Significant Units of Salmon and Steelhead in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and California Final Rule Final designated
1999-02-05 64 FR 5740 5754 Designated Critical Habitat: Proposed Critical Habitat for Nine Evolutionarily Significant Units of Steelhead in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and California Proposed Rule Not Required

To learn more about critical habitat please see http://ecos.fws.gov/crithab

» Conservation Plans

Habitat Conservation Plans (HCP) (learn more)
HCP Plan Summaries
Broughton Land Company
City of Tacoma, Tacoma Water HCP
East Bay Municipal Utility District
Mendocino Redwood Company
Stimson Lumber Company
Stimson Lumber Company
Storedahl's Daybreak Mine Expansion and Habitat Enhancement Project HCP
WDNR Forest Practices HCP

» Petitions

» Life History

No Life History information has been entered into this system for this species.

» Other Resources

NatureServe Explorer Species Reports -- NatureServe Explorer is a source for authoritative conservation information on more than 50,000 plants, animals and ecological communtities of the U.S and Canada. NatureServe Explorer provides in-depth information on rare and endangered species, but includes common plants and animals too. NatureServe Explorer is a product of NatureServe in collaboration with the Natural Heritage Network.

ITIS Reports -- ITIS (the Integrated Taxonomic Information System) is a source for authoritative taxonomic information on plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.

FWS Digital Media Library -- The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library is a searchable collection of selected images, historical artifacts, audio clips, publications, and video.