Higgins eye (Lampsilis higginsii)

Federal Register | Recovery | Critical Habitat | Conservation Plans | Petitions | Life History

Listing Status:   

Where Listed: WHEREVER FOUND

General Information

The Higgins eye is a freshwater mussel of larger rivers where it is usually found in areas with deep water and moderate currents. Its range includes the upper Mississippi River, the St. Croix River between Minnesota and Wisconsin, the Wisconsin River in Wisconsin, and the lower Rock River between Illinois and Iowa.

  • States/US Territories in which the Higgins eye, Wherever found is known to or is believed to occur:  Illinois , Iowa , Minnesota , Missouri , South Dakota , Wisconsin
  • US Counties in which the Higgins eye, Wherever found is known to or is believed to occur:  View All
  • USFWS Refuges in which the Higgins eye, Wherever found is known to occur:  Port Louisa National Wildlife Refuge, St. Croix Wetland Management District, Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge
  • Additional species information
 
Current Listing Status Summary
Status Date Listed Lead Region Where Listed
1976-06-14 Great Lakes-Big Rivers Region (Region 3) Wherever found

» Federal Register Documents

Federal Register Documents
Date Citation Page Title
2010-09-14 00:00:00.0 75 FR 55820 55823 5-Year Status Reviews of Seven Midwest Species; Notice of initiation of reviews; request for information.
1983-02-15 00:00:00.0 48 FR 6752 675 Findings on Certain Petitions and Reviews of Status for Several Species; 48 FR 6752-6753
2014-07-08 00:00:00.0 79 FR 38560 38562 Initiation of 5-Year Status Reviews of Nine Listed Animal and Two Listed Plant Species
1976-06-14 00:00:00.0 41 FR 24062 24067 Endangered Status for 159 Taxa of Animals; 41 FR 24062 24067
2005-07-19 00:00:00.0 70 FR 41423 41424 Initiation of a 5-Year Review of Higgins Eye (Lampsilis higginsii), Hungerford's Crawling Water Beetle (Brychius hungerfordi), Missouri Bladderpod (Lesquerella Filiformis), and Running Buffalo Clover (Trifolium stoloniferum)
2004-07-14 00:00:00.0 69 FR 42198 42199 Approved Recovery Plan for the Higgins Eye Pearlymussel (Lampsilis higginsii)
1975-09-26 00:00:00.0 40 FR 44392 44333 CITES: Proposed Endangered Status for 216 Species on Convention Appendix I; 40 FR 44392 44333
2003-08-15 00:00:00.0 68 FR 48933 48934 Notice of Availability of the Higgins' Eye Pearlymussel (Lampsilis higginsii) Draft Revised Recovery Plan for Review and Comment

» Recovery

Current Recovery Plan(s)
Date Title Plan Action Status Plan Status
2004-05-12 Higgins Eye Pearlymussel View Implementation Progress Final Revision 1
Other Recovery Documents
Date Citation Page Title Document Type
2003-08-15 68 FR 48933 48934 Notice of Availability of the Higgins' Eye Pearlymussel (Lampsilis higginsii) Draft Revised Recovery Plan for Review and Comment
  • Notice Draft Recovery Plan Availability
2005-07-19 70 FR 41423 41424 Initiation of a 5-Year Review of Higgins Eye (Lampsilis higginsii), Hungerford's Crawling Water Beetle (Brychius hungerfordi), Missouri Bladderpod (Lesquerella Filiformis), and Running Buffalo Clover (Trifolium stoloniferum)
  • Notice 5-year Review, Initiation
2014-07-08 79 FR 38560 38562 Initiation of 5-Year Status Reviews of Nine Listed Animal and Two Listed Plant Species
  • Notice 5-year Review, Initiation
2004-07-14 69 FR 42198 42199 Approved Recovery Plan for the Higgins Eye Pearlymussel (Lampsilis higginsii)
  • Notice Recovery Plan Avail.
2010-09-14 75 FR 55820 55823 5-Year Status Reviews of Seven Midwest Species; Notice of initiation of reviews; request for information.
  • Notice 5-year Review, Initiation
Five Year Review
Date Title
2006-05-09 Higgins Eye 5-Year Review

» Critical Habitat

No critical habitat rules have been published for the Higgins eye.

» Conservation Plans

Habitat Conservation Plans (HCP) (learn more)
HCP Plan Summaries
Excelon

» Petitions

» Life History

Food Habits

The animals bury themselves in the sand and gravel river bottoms with just the edge of their partially-opened shells exposed. The river's currents flow over the mussels as they siphon water for microorganisms such as algae and bacteria, which they use as food.

Reproductive Strategy

Male Higgins eye mussels release sperm into the river current and downstream females siphon in the sperm to fertilize their eggs. After fertilization, females store the developing larvae (glochidia) in their gills until they’re expelled into the river current. Some of the glochidia are able to attach themselves to the gills of host fish, where they develop further. After a few weeks, the juvenile mussels detach from the gills of the fish and settle on the river bottom, where they can mature into adult mussels and possibly live up to 50 years. The sauger, walleye, yellow perch, largemouth and smallmouth bass, and freshwater drum are considered suitable hosts for Higgins eye glochidia.

» Other Resources

NatureServe Explorer Species Reports -- NatureServe Explorer is a source for authoritative conservation information on more than 50,000 plants, animals and ecological communtities of the U.S and Canada. NatureServe Explorer provides in-depth information on rare and endangered species, but includes common plants and animals too. NatureServe Explorer is a product of NatureServe in collaboration with the Natural Heritage Network.

ITIS Reports -- ITIS (the Integrated Taxonomic Information System) is a source for authoritative taxonomic information on plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.

FWS Digital Media Library -- The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library is a searchable collection of selected images, historical artifacts, audio clips, publications, and video.