Alabama pearlshell (Margaritifera marrianae)
Where Listed: WHEREVER FOUND
The Alabama pearlshell (Margaritifera marrianae, Johnson 1983) is a medium sized freshwater mussel known from a few tributaries of the Alabama and Escambia River drainages in southcentral Alabama (Johnson 1983, pp. 299–304; McGregor 2004, p. 40; Williams et al. 2008, pp. 98–99). The pearlshell is oblong and grows up to 95 millimeters (mm) (3.8 inches (in)) in length. The outside of the shell (periostracum) is smooth and shiny and somewhat roughened along the posterior slope. The inside of the shell (nacre) is whitish or purplish and moderately iridescent (refer to Johnson 1983 for a full description). The Alabama pearlshell is one of five North American species in the family Margaritiferidae. The family is represented by only two genera, Margaritifera (Schumacher 1816) and Cumberlandia (Ortmann 1912). In Alabama, each genus is represented by a single species—the spectaclecase (Cumberlandia monodonta) occurs in the Tennessee River Basin (Williams et al. 2008, pp. 94–95), and the Alabama pearlshell occurs in the Escambia and Alabama river basins in south Alabama. Prior to 1983, the Alabama pearlshell was thought to be the same species as the Louisiana pearlshell (Margaritifera hembeli Conrad 1838) (Simpson 1914; Clench and Turner 1956), a species now considered endemic to central Louisiana.
- States/US Territories in which the Alabama pearlshell, Wherever found is known to or is believed to occur: Alabama
- US Counties in which the Alabama pearlshell, Wherever found is known to or is believed to occur: View All
|Status||Date Listed||Lead Region||Where Listed|
|10/10/2012||Southeast Region (Region 4)||Wherever found|
» Federal Register Documents
No recovery information is available for the Alabama pearlshell.
» Critical Habitat
|Date||Citation Page||Title||Document Type||Status|
|10/10/2012||77 FR 61663 61719||Determination of Endangered Species Status for the Alabama Pearlshell, Round Ebonyshell, Southern Kidneyshell, and Choctaw Bean, and Threatened Species Status for the Tapered Pigtoe, Narrow Pigtoe, Southern Sandshell, and Fuzzy Pigtoe, and Designation of Critical Habitat: Final rule.||Final Rule||Final designated|
|10/04/2011||76 FR 61482 61529||Endangered Status for the Alabama Pearlshell, Round Ebonyshell, Southern Sandshell, Southern Kidneyshell, and Choctaw Bean, and Threatened Status for the Tapered Pigtoe, Narrow Pigtoe, and Fuzzy Pigtoe; With Critical Habitat: Proposed rule.||Proposed Rule||Not Required|
To learn more about critical habitat please see http://ecos.fws.gov/crithab
» Conservation Plans
No conservation plans have been created for Alabama pearlshell.
» Life History
No Life History information has been entered into this system for this species.
» Other Resources
NatureServe Explorer Species Reports -- NatureServe Explorer is a source for authoritative conservation information on more than 50,000 plants, animals and ecological communtities of the U.S and Canada. NatureServe Explorer provides in-depth information on rare and endangered species, but includes common plants and animals too. NatureServe Explorer is a product of NatureServe in collaboration with the Natural Heritage Network.
ITIS Reports -- ITIS (the Integrated Taxonomic Information System) is a source for authoritative taxonomic information on plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.
FWS Digital Media Library -- The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library is a searchable collection of selected images, historical artifacts, audio clips, publications, and video.