James spinymussel (Pleurobema collina)
Where Listed: WHEREVER FOUND
This fresh water mussel is found in the James River drainage and the and Dan/Mayo River systems within the Roanoke River drainage in Virginia, North Carolina, and West Virginia. The James spinymussel is a small fresh water mussel slightly less than three inches in length. Adults have a dark brown shell with prominent growth rings and occasionally, short spines on each valve. Young mussels have a shiny yellow shell with or without one to three short spines.
- States/US Territories in which the James spinymussel, Entire is known to or is believed to occur: North Carolina , Virginia , West Virginia
- US Counties in which the James spinymussel, Entire is known to or is believed to occur: View All
|Status||Date Listed||Lead Region||Where Listed|
|07/22/1988||Northeast Region (Region 5)||Entire|
» Federal Register Documents
|01/23/2008||73 FR 3991 3993||Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of 10 Listed Species|
|09/01/1987||52 FR 32939 32942||Proposed End. Status for James Spinymussel; 52 FR 32939-32942|
|07/22/1988||53 FR 27689 27693||Determination of End. Status for James Spinymussel; 53 FR 27689-27693|
|Date||Title||Plan Action Status||Plan Status|
|09/24/1990||James Spinymussel||View Implementation Progress||Final|
|Date||Citation Page||Title||Document Type|
|01/23/2008||73 FR 3991 3993||Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of 10 Listed Species||
» Critical Habitat
No critical habitat rules have been published for the James spinymussel.
» Conservation Plans
No conservation plans have been created for James spinymussel.
» Life History
Suitable habitat for this species include free-flowing streams with a variety of flow regimes and water depths. The James spinymussel is found in a variety of substrates that are free from silt.
Like other freshwater mussels, this species is a filter feeder. It feeds on plankton collected from water that is passed over its gills.
Reproduction occurs sexually. Females carry eggs in their gills. During spawning, the male releases sperm into the water column and the sperm is taken into the female through the gills. The resulting larvae (known as glochidia) are released from the female into the water column and must attach to a fish host, development of glochidia continues. Once metamorphosis is complete, the juvenile mussel drops off the fish host and continues to develop on the stream bottom. Known fish hosts for this species include the bluehead chub (Nocomis leptocephalus), rosyside dace (Clinostomus funduloides), blacknose dace (Rhinichthys atratulus), mountain redbelly dace (Phoxinus oreas), rosefin shiner (Lythrurus ardens), satinfin shiner (Cyprinella analostana), central stoneroller (Campostoma anomalum), and swallowtail shiner (Notropis procne).
» Other Resources
NatureServe Explorer Species Reports -- NatureServe Explorer is a source for authoritative conservation information on more than 50,000 plants, animals and ecological communtities of the U.S and Canada. NatureServe Explorer provides in-depth information on rare and endangered species, but includes common plants and animals too. NatureServe Explorer is a product of NatureServe in collaboration with the Natural Heritage Network.
ITIS Reports -- ITIS (the Integrated Taxonomic Information System) is a source for authoritative taxonomic information on plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.
FWS Digital Media Library -- The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library is a searchable collection of selected images, historical artifacts, audio clips, publications, and video.