Alabama moccasinshell (Medionidus acutissimus)
Where Listed: WHEREVER FOUND
Most populations of the Alabama moccasinshell are small and localized where they are found. In a survey of 31 sites in the Conasauga River, Georgia/Tennessee, only 3 specimens were found at a single site, while single individuals were collected from 3 of 7 sites surveyed in Holly Creek (Johnson in litt. 2005). At localized sites in the Sipsey River, the Alabama moccasinshell may be relatively common (~ 2/m2) (Haag in litt 2005). In the years leading up to and following listing, the species has also been found to be relatively common in the Sipsey Fork and several of its tributaries in Bankhead National Forest, Winston/Lawrence Counties, Alabama, than at other locations. The Sipsey Fork drainage populations in the National Forest were quantified in 1993 (Haag and Warren 1994), and densities were found to range from 0.08 to 0.28/m2 (Warren and Haag, 1994). The same populations were sampled again in 2002 (Haag and Warren 2003b). All monitored populations of Alabama moccasinshell had experienced significant declines in abundance in 2002, however some recruitment was observed. The decline was manifested in all species of mussels, and was attributed to a major drought in 2000 (Haag and Warren 2003b)
- States/US Territories in which the Alabama moccasinshell, is known to or is believed to occur: Alabama , Georgia , Mississippi
- US Counties in which the Alabama moccasinshell, is known to or is believed to occur: View All
|Status||Date Listed||Lead Region||Where Listed|
|03/17/1993||Southeast Region (Region 4)|
» Federal Register Documents
|Date||Title||Plan Action Status||Plan Status|
|11/17/2000||Recovery Plan for the Mobile River Basin (15 species)||View Implementation Progress||Final|
|Date||Citation Page||Title||Document Type|
|06/29/1998||63 FR 35277 35278||Notice a Availability of a Revised Draft Recovery Plan for the Mobile River Basin Aquatic Ecosystem for Review and Comment||
|06/14/2005||70 FR 34492 34494||Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of 25 Southeastern Species||
|09/23/2014||79 FR 56821 56823||5-Year Status Reviews of 27 Southeastern Species; Notice of initiation of reviews; request for information||
|04/07/2008||11 Southeastern mussels 5-year review|
» Critical Habitat
|Date||Citation Page||Title||Document Type||Status|
|07/01/2004||69 FR 40084 40171||Designation of Critical Habitat for Three Threatened Mussels and Eight Endangered Mussels in the Mobile River Basin Mussels in Mobile River Basin, AL||Final Rule||Final designated|
|03/26/2003||68 FR 14752 14832||Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Designation of Critical Habitat for Three Threatened Mussels and Eight Endangered Mussels in the Mobile River Basin; Proposed Rule||Proposed Rule||Not Required|
To learn more about critical habitat please see http://ecos.fws.gov/crithab
» Conservation Plans
No conservation plans have been created for Alabama moccasinshell.
» Life History
Although new tributary populations have been discovered since listing, they are generally characterized as small, localized, and with low densities. Low numbers in many stream drainages suggest marginal habitat conditions. All drainage populations remain susceptible to stochastic and chronic events (e.g., spills, drought and/or landuse runoff).
Movement / Home Range
At the time of listing, the Alabama moccasinshell was known to survive in 7 drainages of the Mobile River Basin. The species is now known from 12 drainage populations: Tombigbee River tributaries, including Bull Mountain Creek (Itawamba County, Mississippi), Luxapalila Creek (Lowndes County, Mississippi) and tributary Yellow Creek (Lowndes County, Mississippi; Lamar County, Alabama), Buttahatchee River (Lowndes/Monroe County, Mississippi, Lamar County, Alabama), and tributary Sipsey Creek (Monroe County, Mississippi), Lubbub Creek (Pickens County, Alabama), and Sipsey River (Greene/Pickens County, Alabama); Black Warrior River tributaries, including the Sipsey Fork and tributaries (Winston/Lawrence County, Alabama); and Holly Creek (Murray County, Georgia) in the Coosa River drainage (Dodd et al., 1986; Evans 2001; Hartfield and Bowker, 1992; Hartfield and Jones, 1989, 1990; Johnson and Evans, 2000; Jones, 1991; Jones and Majure, 1999; McGregor, 1992; McGregor et al., 1996; McGregor, 2000; McGregor et al., 2000; MS Museum of Natural Science collection record, 1984-2001; Pierson, 1991a, b; Warren and Haag, 1994; Yokley, 2001). The range of the Alabama moccasinshell remains highly fragmented by dams and impounded waters, with little connectivity between tributary populations.
» Other Resources
NatureServe Explorer Species Reports -- NatureServe Explorer is a source for authoritative conservation information on more than 50,000 plants, animals and ecological communtities of the U.S and Canada. NatureServe Explorer provides in-depth information on rare and endangered species, but includes common plants and animals too. NatureServe Explorer is a product of NatureServe in collaboration with the Natural Heritage Network.
ITIS Reports -- ITIS (the Integrated Taxonomic Information System) is a source for authoritative taxonomic information on plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.
FWS Digital Media Library -- The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library is a searchable collection of selected images, historical artifacts, audio clips, publications, and video.