Dark pigtoe (Pleurobema furvum)

Federal Register | Recovery | Critical Habitat | Conservation Plans | Petitions | Life History

Listing Status:   

Where Listed: WHEREVER FOUND

General Information

Populations are rare, small and localized. Highest densities measured during field surveys have been from the Sipsey Fork and its headwater tributaries in Bankhead National Forest, where quantitative samples at selected sites estimated dark pigtoe densities as high as 0.48/m2 (Warren and Haag, 1994). Resampling in 2002 showed a decline in abundance of dark pigtoe at all survey sites, attributed to a severe drought in 2000 (Haag and Warren 2003b).

  • States/US Territories in which the Dark pigtoe, is known to or is believed to occur:  Alabama
  • US Counties in which the Dark pigtoe, is known to or is believed to occur:  View All
 
Current Listing Status Summary
Status Date Listed Lead Region Where Listed
03/17/1993 Southeast Region (Region 4)

» Federal Register Documents

Federal Register Documents
Date Citation Page Title
03/26/2003 68 FR 14752 14832 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Designation of Critical Habitat for Three Threatened Mussels and Eight Endangered Mussels in the Mobile River Basin; Proposed Rule
06/14/2005 70 FR 34492 34494 Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of 25 Southeastern Species
03/17/1993 58 FR 14330 14340 Endangered Status for Eight Freshwater Mussels and Threatened Status for Three Freshwater Mussels in the Mobil River Drainage
09/23/2014 79 FR 56821 56823 5-Year Status Reviews of 27 Southeastern Species; Notice of initiation of reviews; request for information
11/19/1991 56 FR 58339 58348 ETWP; Proposed Endangered Status for Eight Freshwater Mussels and Proposed Threatened Status for Three Freshwater Mussels in the Mobile River Drainage; 56 FR 58339 58348
07/01/2004 69 FR 40084 40171 Designation of Critical Habitat for Three Threatened Mussels and Eight Endangered Mussels in the Mobile River Basin Mussels in Mobile River Basin, AL
06/29/1998 63 FR 35277 35278 Notice a Availability of a Revised Draft Recovery Plan for the Mobile River Basin Aquatic Ecosystem for Review and Comment

» Recovery

Current Recovery Plan(s)
Date Title Plan Action Status Plan Status
11/17/2000 Recovery Plan for the Mobile River Basin (15 species) View Implementation Progress Final
Other Recovery Documents
Date Citation Page Title Document Type
06/29/1998 63 FR 35277 35278 Notice a Availability of a Revised Draft Recovery Plan for the Mobile River Basin Aquatic Ecosystem for Review and Comment
  • Notice Recovery Plan Avail.
06/14/2005 70 FR 34492 34494 Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of 25 Southeastern Species
  • Notice 5-year Review, Initiation
09/23/2014 79 FR 56821 56823 5-Year Status Reviews of 27 Southeastern Species; Notice of initiation of reviews; request for information
  • Notice 5-year Review, Initiation
Five Year Review
Date Title
04/07/2008 11 Southeastern mussels 5-year review

» Critical Habitat

Date Citation Page Title Document Type Status
07/01/2004 69 FR 40084 40171 Designation of Critical Habitat for Three Threatened Mussels and Eight Endangered Mussels in the Mobile River Basin Mussels in Mobile River Basin, AL Final Rule Final designated
03/26/2003 68 FR 14752 14832 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Designation of Critical Habitat for Three Threatened Mussels and Eight Endangered Mussels in the Mobile River Basin; Proposed Rule Proposed Rule Not Required

To learn more about critical habitat please see http://ecos.fws.gov/crithab

» Conservation Plans

No conservation plans have been created for Dark pigtoe.

» Petitions

» Life History

Movement / Home Range

The dark pigtoe is endemic to the Black Warrior River drainage of Alabama. When listed, the species was known to survive in 3 drainages: Sipsey Fork, Rush Creek, and the North River. Since listing, the presence of the dark pigtoe has been confirmed from 8 tributaries in these three drainages: the Sipsey Fork and its tributaries Caney, Brown, Brushy, Rush, and Capsey Creeks (Winston/Lawrence County, Alabama); and from the North River and its tributary Clear Creek (Fayette County, Alabama) (Alabama Malacological Research Center, in litt., 1996; McGregor, 1992; Pierson, 1992a; Shepard et al., 1998; Vittor and Associates, 1993; Warren and Haag, 1994, Haag and Warren 2003b). Badly weathered shells have also been found in the Locust Fork of the Black Warrior River near the Jefferson-Blount County line. Although all three drainage populations occur in the Black Warrior basin, they are isolated from each other by dams and impounded waters.

Reproductive Strategy

This dark pigtoe is gravid in June and releases glochidia in peach to pink-colored conglutinates (Haag and Warren, 1997). The largescale stoneroller (Campostoma oligolepis), Alabama shiner, blacktail shiner, creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus), and blackspotted topminnow have been confirmed as suitable hosts (Haag and Warren, 1997).

» Other Resources

NatureServe Explorer Species Reports -- NatureServe Explorer is a source for authoritative conservation information on more than 50,000 plants, animals and ecological communtities of the U.S and Canada. NatureServe Explorer provides in-depth information on rare and endangered species, but includes common plants and animals too. NatureServe Explorer is a product of NatureServe in collaboration with the Natural Heritage Network.

ITIS Reports -- ITIS (the Integrated Taxonomic Information System) is a source for authoritative taxonomic information on plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.

FWS Digital Media Library -- The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library is a searchable collection of selected images, historical artifacts, audio clips, publications, and video.