Dark pigtoe (Pleurobema furvum)
Where Listed: WHEREVER FOUND
Populations are rare, small and localized. Highest densities measured during field surveys have been from the Sipsey Fork and its headwater tributaries in Bankhead National Forest, where quantitative samples at selected sites estimated dark pigtoe densities as high as 0.48/m2 (Warren and Haag, 1994). Resampling in 2002 showed a decline in abundance of dark pigtoe at all survey sites, attributed to a severe drought in 2000 (Haag and Warren 2003b).
- States/US Territories in which the Dark pigtoe, is known to or is believed to occur: Alabama
- US Counties in which the Dark pigtoe, is known to or is believed to occur: View All
|Status||Date Listed||Lead Region||Where Listed|
|03/17/1993||Southeast Region (Region 4)|
» Federal Register Documents
|Date||Title||Plan Action Status||Plan Status|
|11/17/2000||Recovery Plan for the Mobile River Basin (15 species)||View Implementation Progress||Final|
|Date||Citation Page||Title||Document Type|
|06/29/1998||63 FR 35277 35278||Notice a Availability of a Revised Draft Recovery Plan for the Mobile River Basin Aquatic Ecosystem for Review and Comment||
|06/14/2005||70 FR 34492 34494||Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of 25 Southeastern Species||
|09/23/2014||79 FR 56821 56823||5-Year Status Reviews of 27 Southeastern Species; Notice of initiation of reviews; request for information||
|04/07/2008||11 Southeastern mussels 5-year review|
» Critical Habitat
|Date||Citation Page||Title||Document Type||Status|
|07/01/2004||69 FR 40084 40171||Designation of Critical Habitat for Three Threatened Mussels and Eight Endangered Mussels in the Mobile River Basin Mussels in Mobile River Basin, AL||Final Rule||Final designated|
|03/26/2003||68 FR 14752 14832||Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Designation of Critical Habitat for Three Threatened Mussels and Eight Endangered Mussels in the Mobile River Basin; Proposed Rule||Proposed Rule||Not Required|
To learn more about critical habitat please see http://ecos.fws.gov/crithab
» Conservation Plans
No conservation plans have been created for Dark pigtoe.
» Life History
Movement / Home Range
The dark pigtoe is endemic to the Black Warrior River drainage of Alabama. When listed, the species was known to survive in 3 drainages: Sipsey Fork, Rush Creek, and the North River. Since listing, the presence of the dark pigtoe has been confirmed from 8 tributaries in these three drainages: the Sipsey Fork and its tributaries Caney, Brown, Brushy, Rush, and Capsey Creeks (Winston/Lawrence County, Alabama); and from the North River and its tributary Clear Creek (Fayette County, Alabama) (Alabama Malacological Research Center, in litt., 1996; McGregor, 1992; Pierson, 1992a; Shepard et al., 1998; Vittor and Associates, 1993; Warren and Haag, 1994, Haag and Warren 2003b). Badly weathered shells have also been found in the Locust Fork of the Black Warrior River near the Jefferson-Blount County line. Although all three drainage populations occur in the Black Warrior basin, they are isolated from each other by dams and impounded waters.
This dark pigtoe is gravid in June and releases glochidia in peach to pink-colored conglutinates (Haag and Warren, 1997). The largescale stoneroller (Campostoma oligolepis), Alabama shiner, blacktail shiner, creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus), and blackspotted topminnow have been confirmed as suitable hosts (Haag and Warren, 1997).
» Other Resources
NatureServe Explorer Species Reports -- NatureServe Explorer is a source for authoritative conservation information on more than 50,000 plants, animals and ecological communtities of the U.S and Canada. NatureServe Explorer provides in-depth information on rare and endangered species, but includes common plants and animals too. NatureServe Explorer is a product of NatureServe in collaboration with the Natural Heritage Network.
ITIS Reports -- ITIS (the Integrated Taxonomic Information System) is a source for authoritative taxonomic information on plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.
FWS Digital Media Library -- The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library is a searchable collection of selected images, historical artifacts, audio clips, publications, and video.