Uncompahgre Fritillary butterfly (Boloria acrocnema)

Federal Register | Recovery | Critical Habitat | Conservation Plans | Petitions | Life History

Listing Status:   

Where Listed: WHEREVER FOUND

General Information

The Uncompahgre fritillary is a small butterfly with a 2-3 cm (1 inch) wingspan. Males have rusty brown wings criss-crossed with black bars; femalesí wings are somewhat lighter. Underneath, the forewing is light ocher and the hindwing has a bold, white jagged bar dividing the crimson brown inner half from the purple-grey scaling on the outer wing surface. The body has a rusty brown thorax and a brownish black abdomen. The Uncompahgre fritillary butterfly was discovered on Uncompahgre Peak, Hinsdale County, Colorado on July 30, 1978. It was subsequently described as a new species.

  • States/US Territories in which the Uncompahgre Fritillary butterfly, Entire is known to or is believed to occur:  Colorado
  • US Counties in which the Uncompahgre Fritillary butterfly, Entire is known to or is believed to occur:  View All
 
Current Listing Status Summary
Status Date Listed Lead Region Where Listed
06/24/1991 Mountain-Prairie Region (Region 6) Entire

» Federal Register Documents

Federal Register Documents
Date Citation Page Title
05/10/1985 50 FR 19761 19763 Findings on Pending Petitions & Description of Progress on Listing Actions; 50 FR 19761-19763
10/15/1990 55 FR 41721 41725 ETWP; To Determine the Uncompahgre Fritillary Butterfly To Be an Endangered Species; 55 FR 41721 41725
01/09/1986 51 FR 996 999 Findings on Pending Petitions & Description of Progress on Listing Actions; 51 FR 996-999
07/07/1988 53 FR 25511 25515 Findings on Pending Petitions & Description of Progress of Listing Actions; 53 FR 25511-25515
12/29/1988 53 FR 52746 52749 Findings on Pending Petitions & Description of Progress on Listing Actions; 53 FR 52746-52749
04/25/1990 55 FR 17475 17476 ETWP; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions and Findings on Recycled Petitions; 55 FR 17475 17476
05/27/2016 81 FR 33698 33700 ETWP; Initiation of 5-Year Status Reviews of 21 Species in the Mountain-Prairie Region
11/21/1991 56 FR 58664 58666 ETWP; Annual Description of Progress on Listing Actions and Findings on Recycled Petitions; 56 FR 58664 58666
04/18/2007 72 FR 19549 19551 Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of Seven Wildlife Species and Two Plant Species in the Mountain-Prairie Region
06/30/1987 52 FR 24312 24314 Findings on Pending Petitions & Description of Progress on Listing Actions; 52 FR 24312-24314
01/20/1984 49 FR 2485 2488 Findings on Pending Petitions & Description of Progress on Listing Actions; 49 FR 2485-2488
06/24/1991 56 FR 28712 28717 ETWP; Uncompahgne fritillary butterfly Determined to be Endangered; 56 FR 28712 28717

» Recovery

Current Recovery Plan(s)
Date Title Plan Action Status Plan Status
03/17/1994 Uncompahgre Fritillary Butterfly View Implementation Progress Final
Other Recovery Documents
Date Citation Page Title Document Type
04/18/2007 72 FR 19549 19551 Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of Seven Wildlife Species and Two Plant Species in the Mountain-Prairie Region
  • Notice 5-year Review, Initiation
05/27/2016 81 FR 33698 33700 ETWP; Initiation of 5-Year Status Reviews of 21 Species in the Mountain-Prairie Region
  • Notice 5-year Review, Initiation
Five Year Review
Date Title
01/05/2010 Uncompahgre Fritillary Butterfly 5-Year Review

» Critical Habitat

No critical habitat rules have been published for the Uncompahgre Fritillary butterfly.

» Conservation Plans

No conservation plans have been created for Uncompahgre Fritillary butterfly.

» Petitions

» Life History

Habitat Requirements

All known populations are associated with large patches of snow willow above 3,780 meters (12,400 feet) which provide food and cover. The species has been found only on northeast-facing slopes, which are the coolest and wettest microhabitat available.

Food Habits

Snow willow is the larval food plant, while adults take nectar from a wide range of flowering alpine plants.

Movement / Home Range

Since listing and the completion of the Recovery Plan, the number of confirmed UFB colonies has increased from 2 to 11. Population estimates have increased from about 1,000 to somewhere between 3,400 and 23,000 at the 3 currently monitored colonies. Similarly, the other eight qualitatively monitored populations have persisted despite four of the colonies apparently having no individuals during one or two surveys in different years since 2001. UFB movement is limited to their habitat patches. Genetic analyses currently underway may help determine if there is connectivity between colonies.

Reproductive Strategy

Females lay eggs on snow willow (Salix reticulata spp. nivalis), which is the larval food plant. The species is believed to primarily have a biennial life history, which means that it requires two years to complete its life cycle. Eggs laid in 2008, would be caterpillars in 2009 and mature into adults the following even-numbered year 2010. The odd-and even-year broods may function as essentially separate populations but recent evidence suggests more mixing that initially thought. Some caterpillars may take two summers to mature rather than three, and slowly developing caterpillars may take up to 4 years to mature. For example, if an egg is laid in 2009, the individual would normally spend all of 2010 as a caterpillar, metamorphose into a butterfly and reproduce to complete the normal biennial lifecycle in 2011. Quickly developing caterpillars could hatch from an egg in 2009, and then metamorphose into an adult and reproduce in 2010. However, this pattern may be extended through 2011, and metamorphosing into an adult and reproducing in 2012. Very dry or very wet weather is suspected to be a factor in population changes, and may influence length of time to maturity, but no correlation to weather or other potential influences has been determined. The butterflies live as adults for only 1-2 weeks.

Other

The only observable current impacts are caused by relatively minor habitat degradation from hiking trail erosion, widening, and braiding on the edge of colonies at Mt. Uncompahgre and Redcloud Peak and short-term impacts from rapid sheep trailing/grazing through Mt. Uncompahgre. Neither of these actions occur at a level to be considered a threat to the species. Climate change may pose the largest threat to the species. Climate change has not been an observable threat to either the Uncompahgre fritillary butterfly or its habitat to date, but is a potential future threat that should be monitored.

» Other Resources

NatureServe Explorer Species Reports -- NatureServe Explorer is a source for authoritative conservation information on more than 50,000 plants, animals and ecological communtities of the U.S and Canada. NatureServe Explorer provides in-depth information on rare and endangered species, but includes common plants and animals too. NatureServe Explorer is a product of NatureServe in collaboration with the Natural Heritage Network.

ITIS Reports -- ITIS (the Integrated Taxonomic Information System) is a source for authoritative taxonomic information on plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.

FWS Digital Media Library -- The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library is a searchable collection of selected images, historical artifacts, audio clips, publications, and video.