Eastern Prairie Fringed orchid (Platanthera leucophaea)
Where Listed: WHEREVER FOUND
This plant is 8 to 40 inches tall and has an upright leafy stem with a flower cluster called an inflorescence. The 3 to 8 inch lance-shaped leaves sheath the stem. Each plant has one single flower spike composed of 5 to 40 creamy white flowers. Each flower has a three-part fringed lip less than 1 inch long and a nectar spur (tube-like structure) which is about 1 to 2 inches long.
- States/US Territories in which the Eastern Prairie Fringed orchid is known to or is believed to occur: Illinois , Indiana , Iowa , Maine , Michigan , Missouri , Ohio , Virginia , Wisconsin
- US Counties in which the Eastern Prairie Fringed orchid is known to or is believed to occur: View All
- USFWS Refuges in which the Eastern Prairie Fringed orchid is known to occur:
Cedar Point National Wildlife Refuge, Leopold Wetland Management District, Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge
- Countries in which the the Eastern Prairie Fringed orchid is known to occur: Canada
- Additional species information
|Status||Date Listed||Lead Region||Where Listed|
|09/28/1989||Great Lakes-Big Rivers Region (Region 3)|
» Federal Register Documents
|07/27/2007||72 FR 41348 41350||Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of Three Wildlife Species and Two Plant Species in the Midwest Region|
|10/11/1988||53 FR 39621 39626||Proposal to Determine Platanthera leucophaea (Eastern Prairie Fringed Orchid) & Plantanthera praeclara (Western Prairie Fringed Orchid) to be Thr. Species; 53 FR 39621-39626|
|06/29/2012||77 FR 38762 38764||5-Year Status Reviews of Seven Listed Species; Notice of initiation of reviews and request for information|
|09/28/1989||54 FR 39857 39863||ETWP; Determination of Threatened Status for Eastern and Western Prairie Fringed Orchids; 54 FR 39857 39863|
|Date||Title||Plan Action Status||Plan Status|
|09/29/1999||Eastern Prairie Fringed Orchid||View Implementation Progress||Final|
|Date||Citation Page||Title||Document Type|
|07/27/2007||72 FR 41348 41350||Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of Three Wildlife Species and Two Plant Species in the Midwest Region||
|06/29/2012||77 FR 38762 38764||5-Year Status Reviews of Seven Listed Species; Notice of initiation of reviews and request for information||
|08/10/2010||Eastern Prairie Fringed Orchid (Platanthera leucophaea) 5-Year Review|
» Critical Habitat
No critical habitat rules have been published for the Eastern Prairie Fringed orchid.
» Conservation Plans
No conservation plans have been created for Eastern Prairie Fringed orchid.
» Life History
The eastern prairie fringed orchid occurs in a wide variety of habitats, from mesic prairie to wetlands such as sedge meadows, marsh edges, even bogs. It requires full sun for optimum growth and flowering and a grassy habitat with little or no woody encroachment. A symbiotic relationship between the seed and soil fungi, called mycorrhizae, is necessary for seedlings to become established. This fungi helps the seeds assimilate nutrients in the soil.
This orchid is a perennial herb that grows from an underground tuber. Flowering begins from late June to early July, and lasts for 7 to 10 days. Blossoms often rise just above the height of the surrounding grasses and sedges. The more exposed flower clusters are more likely to be visited by the hawkmoth pollinators, though they are also at greater risk of being eaten by deer. Seed capsules mature over the growing season and are dispersed by the wind from late August through September. Night flying hawkmoths pollinate the nocturnally fragrant flowers of this white orchid. Visiting hawkmoths inadvertantly collect pollen on their proboscises as they ingest nectar from the flower�s long nectar spurs.
Early decline was due to the loss of habitat, mainly conversion of natural habitats to cropland and pasture. Current decline is mainly due to the loss of habitat from the drainage and development of wetlands. Other reasons for the current decline include succession to woody vegetation, competition from non-native species and over-collection. Recovering a Prairie Orchid - 2003 Endangered Species Tech Bulletin article at http://www.fws.gov/endangered/bulletin/2003/07-12/14-15.pdf
» Other Resources
NatureServe Explorer Species Reports -- NatureServe Explorer is a source for authoritative conservation information on more than 50,000 plants, animals and ecological communtities of the U.S and Canada. NatureServe Explorer provides in-depth information on rare and endangered species, but includes common plants and animals too. NatureServe Explorer is a product of NatureServe in collaboration with the Natural Heritage Network.
ITIS Reports -- ITIS (the Integrated Taxonomic Information System) is a source for authoritative taxonomic information on plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.
FWS Digital Media Library -- The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library is a searchable collection of selected images, historical artifacts, audio clips, publications, and video.