Huachuca water-umbel (Lilaeopsis schaffneriana var. recurva)
Where Listed: WHEREVER FOUND
Lilaeopsis schaffneriana ssp. recurva is a semi-aquatic to fully aquatic herbaceous perennial in the carrot family (Apiaceae). The root system is comprised of both long horizontal rhizomes and connected shorter vertical rhizomes. Hollow linear leaves that taper to a point are produced singly or in clusters at the top of short rhizomes. The leaves vary greatly in length from 2.5 to 33 centimeters (cm) (0.98 to 12.99 inches (in)) depending on their habitat, with shorter leaves typically found in dryer environments and longer when submerged in water. Umbels (umbrella-like flower structures) are born on stalks shorter than the leaves and contain three to ten 1.0 to 2.0 mm (0.04 to 0.08 in) wide perfect flowers with five white to slightly maroon tinted petals and maroon anthers. Fruits are spherical and dry, 1.6 to 2.3 mm (0.6 to 0.09 in) long by 1.2 to 2.0 mm (0.04 to 0.08 in) broad, with five distinct spongy ribs that make the seed buoyant and easily dispersed by water.
- States/US Territories in which the Huachuca water-umbel is known to or is believed to occur: Arizona
- US Counties in which the Huachuca water-umbel is known to or is believed to occur: View All
- USFWS Refuges in which the Huachuca water-umbel is known to occur:
Leslie Canyon National Wildlife Refuge, San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuge
- Countries in which the the Huachuca water-umbel is known to occur: Mexico
- Additional species information
|Status||Date Listed||Lead Region||Where Listed|
|01/06/1997||Southwest Region (Region 2)|
» Federal Register Documents
|Date||Citation Page||Title||Document Type|
|03/08/2016||81 FR 12115||Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Recovery Plan for Lilaeopsis schaffneriana ssp. recurva (Huachuca Water Umbel)||
|02/11/2009||74 FR 6917 6919||5-Year Reviews of 23 Southwestern Species||
|08/21/2014||Huachuca water umbel (Lilaeopsis schaffneriana ssp. recurva) 5-Year Review|
» Critical Habitat
|Date||Citation Page||Title||Document Type||Status|
|07/12/1999||64 FR 37441 37453||ETWP; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Huachuca Water Umbel, a Plant||Final Rule||Final designated|
|12/30/1998||63 FR 71838 71854||ETWP; Proposed Determination of Critical Habitat for the Huachuca Water Umbel, a Plant||Proposed Rule||Not Required|
To learn more about critical habitat please see http://ecos.fws.gov/crithab
» Conservation Plans
|HCP Plan Summaries|
|Pima County Multi-Species Conservation Plan, under Sonoran Desert Conservation Plan|
|SHA Plan Summaries|
|Leslie Canyon Watershed SHA (Barboot/99-Ranch)|
» Life History
Lilaeopsis schaffneriana ssp. recurva is restricted to cienegas, rivers, streams, and springs in permanently wet (or nearly so) muddy or silty substrates with some organic content. The taxon is generally found in shallow and slow-flowing waters that are relatively stable, or in active stream channels containing refugial sites where the plants can escape the effect of scouring floods. Found between 855 and 2,170 m (2,805 and 7,120 ft) elevation, the range of the taxon crosses the Sierra Madrean Region of southeastern Arizona and adjacent portions of Sonora, Mexico
Movement / Home Range
The type specimen of L. schaffneriana ssp. recurva was collected in the Santa Cruz Valley of southern Arizona near Tucson on May 19, 1881, in an area that is now encompassed by the City of Tucson and no longer provides suitable habitat for the species. It was not collected again until September 28, 1947, by L.N. Gooding in Bear Canyon of the Huachuca Mountains. Gooding made six additional collections through 1961, documenting it also from the San Pedro River and Garden Canyon in the Huachuca Mountains. Additional collections were made by other researchers from Sonoita Creek, the Huachuca Mountains, and the San Pedro River in the 1960s. In the 1970s, additions to the range included collections from the San Rafael Valley and Canelo Hills; in the 1980s, San Bernardino National Wildlife Refuge was added to the list of known locations. In the 1990s, the taxon was collected from Empire Gulch and northern Sonora, Mexico;, in the 2000s, it was documented from the new locations of Bingham Cienega and the Babocomari Ranch;, and in the 2010s, it was found further south in Arizona along the San Pedro River. Within the Santa Cruz, San Pedro, Rio Yaqui watersheds in southern Arizona, we are aware of 17 locations supporting extant occurrences of L. schaffneriana ssp. recurva, 8 locations where all L. schaffneriana ssp. recurva occurrences are considered extirpated, and 6 locations where no occurrences have been relocated in recent years. Within the Santa Cruz, San Pedro, Rio Yaqui, Rio Sonora, and Rio Concepcion watersheds in Sonora, Mexico, we are aware of 21 locations supporting L. schaffneriana ssp. recurva occurrences, though most of these locations have not been revisited in recent years. Many of these locations were documented after the plant was listed under the Endangered Species Act, extending the known geographic range to the north and west in Arizona, and expanding the previous elevation limits of 1,148 to 2,133 meters (3,500 to 6,500 feet) known at the time of listing, to the current known range of 610 to 2,166 meters (2,001 to 7,100 feet). There are no occurrences that appear to be increasing in size and many are reported from single patches among competing vegetation or in aquatic habitat that is in danger of being lost to groundwater pumping or drought. Numerous other occurrences have not been relocated in many years and are believed extirpated due to degradation and contraction of suitable habitat.
Although the taxon is capable of reproducing both sexually, through seed, and asexually, through rhizomes, vegetative reproduction is likely the primary form of reproduction in this taxon. Never-the-less, natural seed banks are important for the persistence of rare species and observations in the field suggest L. schaffneriana ssp. recurva seed may remain viable for five to ten years, an important survival strategy during times of drought. Another important survival strategy of L. schaffneriana ssp. recurva are its rhizomes, which enable occurrences to rapidly expand or contract in size between years, seasons, or both, in response to local environmental conditions including temperature and water availability. The taxon can re-root if clumps of rhizomes are dispersed via floods to new habitats.
Continuing loss of aquatic habitat due to surface and groundwater withdrawal is a threat. The small habitat areas that remain are at risk from increased magnitude of runoff from degraded watersheds that can erode habitats and displace plants, or fill in the shallow waters with excess sediment. Expansion of non-native plant species that increase vegetation density in habitat also degrades habitat quality needed for population growth.
» Other Resources
NatureServe Explorer Species Reports -- NatureServe Explorer is a source for authoritative conservation information on more than 50,000 plants, animals and ecological communtities of the U.S and Canada. NatureServe Explorer provides in-depth information on rare and endangered species, but includes common plants and animals too. NatureServe Explorer is a product of NatureServe in collaboration with the Natural Heritage Network.
ITIS Reports -- ITIS (the Integrated Taxonomic Information System) is a source for authoritative taxonomic information on plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.
FWS Digital Media Library -- The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library is a searchable collection of selected images, historical artifacts, audio clips, publications, and video.