Canelo Hills ladies'-tresses (Spiranthes delitescens)
Where Listed: WHEREVER FOUND
A slender, erect, perennial terrestrial orchid that reaches 50 cm including the spiral flower cluster. Five to ten linear-lanceolate leaves grow basally on the stem arising from fleshy, swollen roots. The flower stalk contains up to 40 small white flowers.
- States/US Territories in which the Canelo Hills ladies'-tresses, Wherever found is known to or is believed to occur: Arizona
- US Counties in which the Canelo Hills ladies'-tresses, Wherever found is known to or is believed to occur: View All
- Additional species information
|Status||Date Listed||Lead Region||Where Listed|
|01/06/1997||Southwest Region (Region 2)||Wherever found|
» Federal Register Documents
|12/14/1993||58 FR 65325 65327||ETWP; Notice of 90-Day findings on Petitions to List Three Southern Arizona Cienega Species|
|09/30/1993||58 FR 51144 51190||ETWP; Review of Plant Taxa for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species|
|02/11/2009||74 FR 6917 6919||5-Year Reviews of 23 Southwestern Species|
|09/12/1995||60 FR 47340 47341||ETWP; Reopening of Comment Period and Notice of Public Hearing on Proposed Endangered Status for Three Wetland Species in Southern Arizona and Northern Sonora|
|02/28/1996||61 FR 7597 7613||ETWP; Review of Plant and Animal Taxa That Are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species|
|04/03/1995||60 FR 16837 16847||ETWP; Proposal To Determine Endangered Status for Three Wetland Species Found in Southern Arizona and Northern Sonora|
|01/06/1997||62 FR 665 689||ETWP; Determination of Endangered Status for Three Wetland Species Found in Southern Arizona and Northern Sonora, Mexico|
|Date||Citation Page||Title||Document Type|
|02/11/2009||74 FR 6917 6919||5-Year Reviews of 23 Southwestern Species||
» Critical Habitat
No critical habitat rules have been published for the Canelo Hills ladies'-tresses.
» Conservation Plans
No conservation plans have been created for Canelo Hills ladies'-tresses.
» Life History
Spiranthes delitescens is found in fine-grained, highly organic but well-drained moist soils near springs, seeps, wet meadows (cienegas) and small streams. Known locations are at approximately 5,000 feet elevation. Associated plants include sedges, tall grasses, and a few small herbs.
Movement / Home Range
This species is known from a very few sites in southern Arizona, and further surveys need to be completed for New Mexico and Mexico. Spiranthes delitescens population size has varied across the decades of periodic survey at these five known locations. The plant had not been relocated at any site since 2006 when it was found at Sheehy Spring on private land; in the summer of 2016, 12 individuals were found at a known location near Canelo on private land. Despite surveys,plants were not relocated at 3 of the 4 other sites in 2016; no surveys were done at the fifth location on private land.
Spiranthes delitescens is perennial and thought to live 3 to 4 years in the wild; captive grown plants can live longer. Mature plants do not flower every year, and in some years, there is no vegetative growth visible above the ground. Even plants that are vegetatively present may not produce a flower stalk. Flowers appear in July or August. Seedlings must form an association with a mycorrhizal fungus and these young plants live underground for several years before above-ground vegetative growth occurs. The orchid dies back to the ground in fall and winters underground. Emergence, if it occurs, is in May. Although we don't know pollinators for this species, known pollinators for the genus Spiranthes include bumblebees, halictid bees, and megachilid bees.
Threats to this orchid are from destruction of its habitat by surface and groundwater development, long term drought, improper land management (including erosion off watersheds), spread of invasive non-native plant species, and trampling at habitat sites. The role of fire and grazing to create open patches and reduce competition need further investigation.
» Other Resources
NatureServe Explorer Species Reports -- NatureServe Explorer is a source for authoritative conservation information on more than 50,000 plants, animals and ecological communtities of the U.S and Canada. NatureServe Explorer provides in-depth information on rare and endangered species, but includes common plants and animals too. NatureServe Explorer is a product of NatureServe in collaboration with the Natural Heritage Network.
ITIS Reports -- ITIS (the Integrated Taxonomic Information System) is a source for authoritative taxonomic information on plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.
FWS Digital Media Library -- The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library is a searchable collection of selected images, historical artifacts, audio clips, publications, and video.