Wood stork (Mycteria americana)

Federal Register | Recovery | Critical Habitat | Conservation Plans | Petitions | Life History

Listing Status:   

General Information

Wood storks are large, long-legged wading birds, about 5O inches tall, with a wingspan of 60 to 65 inches. The plumage is white except for black primaries and secondaries and a short black tail. The head and neck are largely unfeathered and dark gray in color. The bill is black, thick at the base, and slightly decurved. Immature birds are dingy gray and have a yellowish bill.

  • States/US Territories in which the Wood stork, AL, FL, GA, MS, NC, SC is known to or is believed to occur:  Alabama , Florida , Georgia , Mississippi , North Carolina , South Carolina
  • US Counties in which the Wood stork, AL, FL, GA, MS, NC, SC is known to or is believed to occur:  View All
  • USFWS Refuges in which the Wood stork, AL, FL, GA, MS, NC, SC is known to occur:  Archie Carr National Wildlife Refuge, Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge, Banks Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Blackbeard Island National Wildlife Refuge, Bond Swamp National Wildlife Refuge  ... Show All Refuges
  • Additional species information
Current Listing Status Summary
Status Date Listed Lead Region Where Listed
1984-02-28 Southeast Region (Region 4) U.S.A. (AL, FL, GA, MS, NC, SC)

» Federal Register Documents

Federal Register Documents
Date Citation Page Title
2013-01-03 00:00:00.0 78 FR 278 279 Reclassification of the Continental United States Breeding Population of the Wood Stork From Endangered to Threatened; Correction
2006-09-27 00:00:00.0 71 FR 56545 56547 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Review of 37 Southeastern Species
1984-02-28 00:00:00.0 49 FR 7332 7335 US Breeding Population of Wood Stork Determined to be End.; 49 FR 7332- 7335
2014-06-30 00:00:00.0 79 FR 37077 37103 Reclassification of the U.S. Breeding Population of the Wood Stork From Endangered to Threatened
2010-09-21 00:00:00.0 75 FR 57426 57431 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Reclassify the U.S. Breeding Population of Wood Storks From Endangered to Threatened
1982-12-30 00:00:00.0 47 FR 58454 58460 Review of Vertebrate Wildlife for Listing as End. or Thr. Species
2012-12-26 00:00:00.0 77 FR 75947 75966 Reclassification of the Continental U.S. Breeding Population of the Wood Stork From Endangered to Threatened; Proposed Rule and Notice of Petition Finding
1983-02-28 00:00:00.0 48 FR 8402 840 Proposed End. Status for US Breeding Population of Wood Stork (Mycteria americana); 48 FR 8402-8404

» Recovery

Current Recovery Plan(s)
Date Title Plan Action Status Plan Status
1997-01-27 Revised Recovery Plan for the U.S. Breeding Population of the Wood Stork View Implementation Progress Final Revision 1
Other Recovery Documents
Date Citation Page Title Document Type
2006-09-27 71 FR 56545 56547 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Review of 37 Southeastern Species
  • Notice 5-year Review, Initiation
Five Year Review
Date Title
2007-09-21 Wood Stork 5-Year Review

» Critical Habitat

No critical habitat rules have been published for the Wood stork.

» Conservation Plans

No conservation plans have been created for Wood stork.

» Petitions

» Life History

Habitat Requirements

The southeast United States breeding population of the wood stork declined from an estimated 20,000 pairs in the 1930's to about 10,000 pairs by 1960, and to a low of approximately 5,000 pairs in the late 1970s. Nesting primarily occurred in the Everglades. The generally accepted explanation for the decline of the wood stork is the reduction in food base (primarly small fish) necessary to support breeding colonies. This reduction is attributed to loss of wetland habitat as well as to changes in water hydroperiods from draining wetlands and changing water regimes by constructing levees, canals, and floodgates to alter water flow in south Florida. Wood storks have a unique feeding technique and require higher prey concentrations than other wading birds. Optimal water regimes for the wood stork involve periods of flooding, during which prey (fish) populations increase, alternating with dryer periods, during which receding water levels concentrate fish at higher densities coinciding with the stork's nesting season. Loss of nesting habitat (primarily cypress swamps) may be affecting wood storks in central Florida, where nesting in non-native trees and in man-made impoundments has been occurring recently. Less significant factors known to affect nesting success include prolonged drought and flooding, raccoon predation on nests, and human disturbance of rookeries.

Food Habits

Small fish from 1 to 6 inches long, especially topminnows and sunfish, provide this bird's primary diet. Wood storks capture their prey by a specialized technique known as grope-feeding or tacto-location. Feeding often occurs in water 6 to 10 inches deep, where a stork probes with the bill partly open. When a fish touches the bill it quickly snaps shut. The average response time of this reflex is 25 milliseconds, making it one of the fastest reflexes known in vertebrates. Wood storks use thermals to soar as far as 80 miles from nesting to feeding areas. Since thermals do not form in early morning, wood storks may arrive at feeding areas later than other wading bird species such as herons. Energy requirements for a pair of nesting wood storks and their young is estimated at 443 pounds of fish for the breeding season (based on an average production of 2.25 fledglings per nest).

Movement / Home Range

The current population of adult birds is difficult to estimate, since not all nest each year. Presently, the wood stork breeding population is believed to be greater than 8,000 nesting pairs (16,000 breeding adults). Nesting has been restricted to Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina, however they may have formerly bred in most of the southeastern United States and Texas. A second distinct, non-endangered population of wood storks breeds from Mexico to northern Argentina. Storks from both populations move northward after breeding, with birds from the southeastern United States population moving as far north as North Carolina on the Atlantic coast and into Alabama and eastern Mississippi along the Gulf coast, and storks from Mexico moving up into Texas and Louisiana and as far north as Arkansas and Tennessee along the Mississippi River Valley. There have been occasional sightings in all States along and east of the Mississippi River, and sporadic sightings in some States west of the Mississippi and in Ontario.

Reproductive Strategy

The wood stork is a highly colonial species usually nesting in large rookeries and feeding in flocks. Age at first breeding is 3 years but typically do so at 4. Nesting periods vary geographically. In South Florida, wood storks lay eggs as early as October and fledge in February or March. However, in north and central Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina, storks lay eggs from March to late May, with fledging occurring in July and August. Nests are frequently located in the upper branches of large cypress trees or in mangroves on islands. Several nests are usually located in each tree. Wood storks have also nested in man-made structures. Storks lay two to five eggs, and average two young fledged per successful nest under good conditions.

» Other Resources

NatureServe Explorer Species Reports -- NatureServe Explorer is a source for authoritative conservation information on more than 50,000 plants, animals and ecological communtities of the U.S and Canada. NatureServe Explorer provides in-depth information on rare and endangered species, but includes common plants and animals too. NatureServe Explorer is a product of NatureServe in collaboration with the Natural Heritage Network.

ITIS Reports -- ITIS (the Integrated Taxonomic Information System) is a source for authoritative taxonomic information on plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.

FWS Digital Media Library -- The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's National Digital Library is a searchable collection of selected images, historical artifacts, audio clips, publications, and video.