freira (Pterodroma madeira)
Where Listed: WHEREVER FOUND
No Description Available
- Countries in which the the freira, Wherever found is known to occur: Portugal
- Additional species information
|Status||Date Listed||Lead Region||Where Listed|
|1995-01-12||Foreign (Headquarters)||Wherever found|
» Federal Register Documents
|1991-12-16 00:00:00.0||56 FR 65207 65208||ETWP; Finding on Petition and Initiation of Status Review of 53 Foreign Birds; 56 FR 65207 65208|
|1995-01-12 00:00:00.0||60 FR 2899 2905||ETWP; Addition of 30 African Birds to List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife|
|1994-03-28 00:00:00.0||59 FR 14496 14502||ETWP; Proposed Addition of 30 African Birds to the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife|
No recovery information is available for the freira.
» Critical Habitat
No critical habitat rules have been published for the freira.
» Conservation Plans
No conservation plans have been created for freira.
» Life History
Movement / Home Range
Distribution and population Pterodroma madeira has an estimated breeding population of 65-80 pairs (Menezes et al. 2005), in the central mountain massif of Madeira, Portugal, though subfossil remains elsewhere in Madeira and on the neighbouring island of Porto Santo (Zino et al. 2001) suggest that it was formerly more widespread. Currently, birds are only known to breed on six inaccessible ledges - with 53 of the 63 nests surveyed during the 2006 breeding season found to be active - although ongoing surveys may yet reveal more breeding sites (D. Menezes and P. Oliveira in litt. 2007). A massive forest fire in August 2010 at the species's breeding colony killed several breeding adults and 65% of the year’s chicks. 25 young and 3 adults were found dead at the colony, and only 13 young fledglings were found alive in their underground chambers (P. Oliveira in litt. 2010). As well as the dead birds, the fire exacerbated soil erosion, with several nesting burrows having disappeared. Subsequently, as a result of the ground being barren, making food for predators scarce and the petrel chicks more vulnerable, of the 13 birds originally found alive, only one survived to fledging (BirdLife International 2012). In 2011, 45 nests were found to be occupied with eggs laid in 43 of them. A total of 19 nestlings hatched and 16 chicks fledged (BirdLife International 2012), however, the impact of the fires on the breeding population size is not yet known as the effects of the fire will likely be felt in subsequent years. Little is known about the species's range outside the breeding season.
Medium-sized, grey and white gadfly petrel. Grey upperparts with dark cap and dark "M" across wings. White underparts except for indistinct pale grey half-collar across upper breast. Predominantly dark grey-brown underwing. Similar spp. Fea's Petrel P. feae is virtually identical, but slightly larger with longer, thicker bill and longer wings. Voice Wails and moans at colony. Silent at sea.
» Other Resources
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ITIS Reports -- ITIS (the Integrated Taxonomic Information System) is a source for authoritative taxonomic information on plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world.
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