Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti)
Where Listed: WHEREVER FOUND
The Humboldt penguin is endemic to the west coast of South America from Foca Island (5[deg]12'0''S) in northern Peru to the Pinihuil Islands near Chiloe, Chile (42[deg]S) (Araya et al. 2000, p. 1). It is a congener of the African penguin and has similar life history and ecological traits. Humboldt penguins historically bred on guano islands off the coast of Peru and Chile (Araya et al. 2000, p.1). Prior to human mining of guano for fertilizer, the Humboldt penguin's primary nesting habitat was in burrows, tunneled into the deep guano substrate on offshore islands. While the guano is produced primarily by three other species (the Guanay cormorant (Phalacrocorax bouganvillii), the Peruvian booby (Sula variegate), and Peruvian pelican (Pelecanus thagus)), Humboldt penguins depended on these burrows for shelter from the heat and from predators. With the intensive harvest of guano over the last century and a half in both countries, Humboldt penguins are forced to nest out in the open or seek shelter in caves or under vegetation (Paredes and Zavalga 2001, pp. 199-205).
|Status||Date Listed||Lead Region||Where Listed|
|2010-09-02||Foreign (Headquarters)||Wherever found|
» Federal Register Documents
|2007-07-11 00:00:00.0||72 FR 37695 37697||90-Day Finding on a Petition to List 12 Penguin Species as Threatened or Endangered under the Endangered Species Act|
|2008-12-18 00:00:00.0||73 FR 77303 77332||12-Month Finding on a Petition to List Five Penguin Species Under the Endangered Species Act, and Proposed Rule To List the Five Penguin Species|
|2010-08-03 00:00:00.0||75 FR 45497 45527||Determination of Threatened Status for Five Penguin Species;The yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes), white-flippered penguin (Eudyptula minor albosignata), Fiordland crested penguin (Eudyptes pachyrhynchus), Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti), and erect-crested penguin (Eudyptes sclateri) :Final rule.|
No recovery information is available for the Humboldt penguin.
» Critical Habitat
No critical habitat rules have been published for the Humboldt penguin.
» Conservation Plans
No conservation plans have been created for Humboldt penguin.
» Life History
No Life History information has been entered into this system for this species.
» Other Resources
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