Recovery Plan Ad Hoc Report results

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Plan Title Plan Stage Plan Lead Region (FWS) Plan Lead Office (FWS) Species Common Name Species Scientific Name Action Priority Action Number Action Description Action Status Estimated Initiation Date Estimated Completion Date Action Lead Agencies Responsible Parties Work Types Labor Types Comments Implementation Activity Number Implementation Activity Description Implementation Activity Status Implementation Activity Estimated Initiation Date Implementation Activity Estimated Completion Date Implementation Activity Labor Types Implementation Activity Work Types Implementation Activity Responsible Parties Implementation Activity Comments Implementation Activity Species
Small Whorled Pogonia RF(1) 5 New England Ecological Services Field Office (603) 223-2541 Small whorled pogonia Isotria medeoloides 1 1 Identify ownership of all known populations Complete Prior to FY 1995 FY 2006 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Conservation Organizations, State agencies, USFWS Regional Office 4 - Atlanta, Region 5, Fish and Wildlife Enhancement Management: Other Labor type not yet selected R3 landowner information known
Small Whorled Pogonia RF(1) 5 New England Ecological Services Field Office (603) 223-2541 Small whorled pogonia Isotria medeoloides 1 2 Identify gaps of protected habitat throughout the species' range Not Started U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Conservation Organizations, State agencies, Region 5, Fish and Wildlife Enhancement Management: General Labor type not yet selected
Small Whorled Pogonia RF(1) 5 New England Ecological Services Field Office (603) 223-2541 Small whorled pogonia Isotria medeoloides 1 3 Determine overall priorities for land protection Not Started U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Conservation Organizations, State agencies, Region 5, Fish and Wildlife Enhancement Acquisition: Other Labor type not yet selected
Small Whorled Pogonia RF(1) 5 New England Ecological Services Field Office (603) 223-2541 Small whorled pogonia Isotria medeoloides 1 4 Coordinate among governmental agencies and conservation organizations in providing permanent protection Ongoing Current Prior to FY 1995 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Conservation Organizations, Federal Agencies, State agencies, Region 5, Fish and Wildlife Enhancement, USFWS Regional Office 4 - Fish and Wildlife Enhancement, Private research or academic institutions Management Internal Administrative Plus 7000/yr for at least 4 more years = $49000 total
Small Whorled Pogonia RF(1) 5 New England Ecological Services Field Office (603) 223-2541 Small whorled pogonia Isotria medeoloides 1 5 Develop and maintain conservation plans for each protected site Ongoing Current FY 2009 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Conservation Organizations, State agencies, USFWS Regional Office 3 - Twin Cities, USFWS Regional Office 4 - Atlanta, USFWS Regional Office 5 Management: Land Use Species Expert Plus 1995-1997 at 10000/yr = $30000 total
Small Whorled Pogonia RF(1) 5 New England Ecological Services Field Office (603) 223-2541 Small whorled pogonia Isotria medeoloides 1 6 Continue statewide surveys Discontinued Prior to FY 1995 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Conservation Organizations, State agencies Research: Population Surveys Labor type not yet selected Plus 15000/yr for at least 4 more years = $95000 total. A number of organizations monitor individual populations regularly.
Small Whorled Pogonia RF(1) 5 New England Ecological Services Field Office (603) 223-2541 Small whorled pogonia Isotria medeoloides 1 7 Determine minimum viability of a colony Ongoing Current FY 2012 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Conservation Organizations, State agencies Research: Population Surveys Species Expert The definition of a viable population as written in the recovery plan is no longer agreed upon. NHHB is working on developing a definition based on info that has come available since the recovery plan was written.
Small Whorled Pogonia RF(1) 5 New England Ecological Services Field Office (603) 223-2541 Small whorled pogonia Isotria medeoloides 2 10 Investigate effects of manipulation of light levels on I. medeoloides Partially Complete FY 2000 - FY 2004 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Conservation Organizations, State agencies, Private research or academic institutions Research: Habitat Requirements Species Expert Recent research has focused on the effects of habitat manipulation, in particular increasing light levels, to enhance SWP populations (Brumback & Fyler 2005, Cairns 2006). Anecdotal evidence as well as experimental manipulations within populations in New Hampshire (Brumback 2007, Cairns and Herrmann 2005, Cairns 2006) and in Massachusetts (Jennifer Garrett, Massachusetts Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program, email dated 8/16/2010) indicate that increasing the level of light reaching the forest floor through understory and overstory canopy removal may increase the number of plant stems, flowers and capsules and may affect plant vigor. Cairns (2010) stated that there is anecdotal evidence that thinning at SWP sites has increased the number of stems, however it will be another two to five years before enough data is available to make a before-and-after analysis. As of 2011, after three years of collecting post-thinning data, no significant differences are apparent in the stem densities of plants in the herbaceous or low shrub layers before and after thinning (Cairns 2012a). In a controlled experiment, Brumback et. al. (2011) doubled the amount of light that reached the forest floor by removing shrubs and some of the canopy layer. They determined that this managed plot yielded significantly more SWP stems and seed capsules than a control plot. However, it should be noted that this experiment did not consist of any replicates. All of this research has focused on northern populations; it is unknown whether or not southerm populations will respond in the same way.
Small Whorled Pogonia RF(1) 5 New England Ecological Services Field Office (603) 223-2541 Small whorled pogonia Isotria medeoloides 2 11 Develop range wide consistency in monitoring strategies Ongoing Current FY 2012 FY 2013 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Conservation Organizations, State agencies, USFWS Regional Office 5 Research: Population Assessment Species Expert This was discussed at Feb. 2102 recovery plan meeting. NHHB is working on this.
Small Whorled Pogonia RF(1) 5 New England Ecological Services Field Office (603) 223-2541 Small whorled pogonia Isotria medeoloides 2 12 Create displays for use at visitor information centers Not Started U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Federal Agencies, State agencies, USFWS Regional Office 4 - Atlanta, USFWS Regional Office 5 Other: Information and Education Labor type not yet selected
Small Whorled Pogonia RF(1) 5 New England Ecological Services Field Office (603) 223-2541 Small whorled pogonia Isotria medeoloides 2 21 Monitor known sites and new sites as they are found Ongoing Current Prior to FY 1995 Other Conservation Organizations, State agencies, USFWS Regional Office 3 - Twin Cities, USFWS Regional Office 4 - Atlanta, USFWS Regional Office 5 Research: Population Assessment Volunteer, Species Expert Plus 5000for 1995-2001. Many known populations are monitored regularly.
Small Whorled Pogonia RF(1) 5 New England Ecological Services Field Office (603) 223-2541 Small whorled pogonia Isotria medeoloides 2 22 Determine when a population is to be considered historical Obsolete Other Conservation Organizations, State agencies Research: Population Assessment Labor type not yet selected
Small Whorled Pogonia RF(1) 5 New England Ecological Services Field Office (603) 223-2541 Small whorled pogonia Isotria medeoloides 2 23 Assess known habitat characteristics Ongoing Current U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Conservation Organizations, Federal Agencies, State agencies Research: Habitat Requirements Species Expert Work still being done to determine microhabitat preferences (ideal canopy cover, leaf litter composition, etc).
Small Whorled Pogonia RF(1) 5 New England Ecological Services Field Office (603) 223-2541 Small whorled pogonia Isotria medeoloides 2 24 Determine those parameters most representative of preferred habitat Ongoing Current U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Conservation Organizations, Federal Agencies, State agencies Research: Habitat Requirements Species Expert Ongoing research on preferred canopy cover, leaf litter, etc.
Small Whorled Pogonia RF(1) 5 New England Ecological Services Field Office (603) 223-2541 Small whorled pogonia Isotria medeoloides 2 25 Develop predictive models for all three centers of geographical distribution Ongoing Not Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service State agencies, USFWS Regional Office 4 - Atlanta, USFWS Regional Office 5, Private research or academic institutions Research: Other Information Species Expert
Small Whorled Pogonia RF(1) 5 New England Ecological Services Field Office (603) 223-2541 Small whorled pogonia Isotria medeoloides 2 26 Survey areas identified by predictive models Ongoing Not Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Conservation Organizations, State agencies, USFWS Regional Office 4 - Atlanta, USFWS Regional Office 5, Private research or academic institutions Research: Population Surveys Species Expert, Internal Technical Assistance According to 2008 5 year review: Geographically appropriate habitat models similar to the New England models (Sperduto and Congalton 1996) should be developed and applied to targeted surveys to search for new populations.
Small Whorled Pogonia RF(1) 5 New England Ecological Services Field Office (603) 223-2541 Small whorled pogonia Isotria medeoloides 2 27 Continue detailed demographic studies of selected sites Discontinued FY 2000 - FY 2004 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Conservation Organizations, State agencies, USFWS Regional Office 4 - Atlanta, USFWS Regional Office 5, Private research or academic institutions Research: Demographic Studies Labor type not yet selected
Small Whorled Pogonia RF(1) 5 New England Ecological Services Field Office (603) 223-2541 Small whorled pogonia Isotria medeoloides 2 28 Determine colonization of unoccupied habitat in order to identify appropriate buffers Ongoing Not Current U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Conservation Organizations, State agencies, USFWS Regional Office 4 - Atlanta, USFWS Regional Office 5, Private research or academic institutions Research: Other Information Species Expert Colonization by SWP into habitat adjacent to existing populations has not been documented. This was still the case as of the meeting in February 2012. There is evidence that colonization into new areas happens rarely, if at all, near existing populations.
Small Whorled Pogonia RF(1) 5 New England Ecological Services Field Office (603) 223-2541 Small whorled pogonia Isotria medeoloides 2 29 Investigate dormancy Complete FY 1995 - FY 1999 FY 2000 - FY 2004 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Conservation Organizations, State agencies, Private research or academic institutions Research: General Labor type not yet selected Continuation of ongoing studies. $25000 total
Small Whorled Pogonia RF(1) 5 New England Ecological Services Field Office (603) 223-2541 Small whorled pogonia Isotria medeoloides 2 30 Update brochure on I. medeoloides Not Started U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service USFWS Regional Office 4 - Atlanta, USFWS Regional Office 5 Other: Information and Education Labor type not yet selected
Small Whorled Pogonia RF(1) 5 New England Ecological Services Field Office (603) 223-2541 Small whorled pogonia Isotria medeoloides 2 31 Provide information to pertinent municipal agencies in areas of I. medeoloides populations Ongoing Not Current Prior to FY 1995 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service USFWS Regional Office 3 - Twin Cities, USFWS Regional Office 4 - Atlanta, USFWS Regional Office 5 Other: Information and Education Labor type not yet selected
Small Whorled Pogonia RF(1) 5 New England Ecological Services Field Office (603) 223-2541 Small whorled pogonia Isotria medeoloides 2 8 Seek support of private landowners in protecting habitat through voluntary agreements Ongoing Current Prior to FY 1995 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Conservation Organizations, State agencies, Private research or academic institutions Acquisition: General Labor type not yet selected Plus 2500/yr for at least 4 more years = $17500 total. Permanent protection of small whorled pogonia populations through land acquisition and conservation easements has primarily been undertaken in the northeastern portion of the species' range (New Hampshire, Connecticut, Maine, and Ohio). Protection of SWP sites elsewhere in its range is primarily as a result of surveys documenting populations on state and federal lands.
Small Whorled Pogonia RF(1) 5 New England Ecological Services Field Office (603) 223-2541 Small whorled pogonia Isotria medeoloides 2 9 Use existing regulatory mechanisms to protect I. medeoloides habitat Ongoing Current Prior to FY 1995 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Federal Agencies, State agencies, Region 5, Fish and Wildlife Enhancement, USFWS Region 3, Fish and Wildlife Enhancement, USFWS Regional Office 4 - Fish and Wildlife Enhancement Other: Regulations Labor type not yet selected No funding
Small Whorled Pogonia RF(1) 5 New England Ecological Services Field Office (603) 223-2541 Small whorled pogonia Isotria medeoloides 3 13 Encourage the development of comprehensive State plant protection legislation Discontinued Prior to FY 1995 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service State agencies, Private research or academic institutions Other: Regulations Labor type not yet selected No funding
Small Whorled Pogonia RF(1) 5 New England Ecological Services Field Office (603) 223-2541 Small whorled pogonia Isotria medeoloides 3 14 Determine researcher/visitor impacts on populations Obsolete FY 2008 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Conservation Organizations, State agencies Other: Information and Education Labor type not yet selected 1995-1996 at 2000/yr = $4000 total
Small Whorled Pogonia RF(1) 5 New England Ecological Services Field Office (603) 223-2541 Small whorled pogonia Isotria medeoloides 3 15 Identify herbivore impacts Ongoing Current Prior to FY 1995 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Conservation Organizations, State agencies Research: Predation Species Expert Herbivory continues to be documented for numerous populations throughout this species’ range, in particular by deer and rabbits. As the rural, forested SWP habitats are converted into developments and deer and rabbit populations increase due to hunting restrictions, increased herbivory on SWP may be anticipated. Smaller SWP populations may be particularly vulnerable to herbivory. A few populations in Virginia and North Carolina are protected by wire fencing around clustered SWPs to prevent deer browse (C. Ulrey, National Park Service, pers. comm. 2007). Other herbivores include non-native slugs, camel crickets, leaf rollers (Ware 1999), and possibly feral hogs in the mountains of North Carolina. Charlie Moreno is interested in mounting a Critter Cam at Parker Mtn to document herbivory.
Small Whorled Pogonia RF(1) 5 New England Ecological Services Field Office (603) 223-2541 Small whorled pogonia Isotria medeoloides 3 16 Investigate reproductive strategies Complete FY 2000 - FY 2004 FY 2000 - FY 2004 Other State agencies, Private research or academic institutions Research: General Labor type not yet selected Vitt and Campbell (1997) determined that SWP was primarily self-compatible and self-pollinating and concluded that reproduction may be limited by resources rather than pollen availability.
Small Whorled Pogonia RF(1) 5 New England Ecological Services Field Office (603) 223-2541 Small whorled pogonia Isotria medeoloides 3 17 Determine mycorrhizal interaction and function Ongoing Current FY 2007 Other Federal Agencies, Private research or academic institutions Research: Habitat Requirements, Research: Other Information Species Expert Whigham (Smithsonian) is working on this. Because plant emergence has been so low, very few root samples have been obtained, although the researchers have determined that the fungus is more evident early on in the growing season, and this is when research efforts should be focused. As for the root samples that have been collected, fungi in the family Russulaceae have been identified. Species in this family are obligately ectomycorrhizal and associate with trees such as oaks, hickories, and beeches. Work to isolate the exact species of fungus and its obligate tree host species continues.
Small Whorled Pogonia RF(1) 5 New England Ecological Services Field Office (603) 223-2541 Small whorled pogonia Isotria medeoloides 3 18 Investigate genetic variability of populations within the three geographic centers and the outlying sites Ongoing Current FY 2000 - FY 2004 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Federal Agencies, Private research or academic institutions Research: Genetics Species Expert Whigham et. al.'s (2011) analysis of DNA samples demonstrated that each population studied (in Virginia) is genetically diverse and unique and every plant, with the exception of those from one population, is the product of self-fertilization. When compared to New England populations, the results suggest that there may be genetic differences between regions.
Small Whorled Pogonia RF(1) 5 New England Ecological Services Field Office (603) 223-2541 Small whorled pogonia Isotria medeoloides 3 19 Develop educational materials for distribution in schools Obsolete FY 2008 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Conservation Organizations, State agencies, USFWS Regional Office 4 - Atlanta, USFWS Regional Office 5 Other: Information and Education Labor type not yet selected
Small Whorled Pogonia RF(1) 5 New England Ecological Services Field Office (603) 223-2541 Small whorled pogonia Isotria medeoloides 3 20 Review recovery progress and update plan as necessary Ongoing Current Prior to FY 1995 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service USFWS Regional Office 5 Other: Administration Species Expert The definition of a viable population needs to be updated. NHHB is working on this.