Recovery Plan Ad Hoc Report results

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Plan Title Plan Stage Plan Lead Region (FWS) Plan Lead Office (FWS) Species Common Name Species Scientific Name Action Priority Action Number Action Description Action Status Estimated Initiation Date Estimated Completion Date Action Lead Agencies Responsible Parties Work Types Labor Types Comments Implementation Activity Number Implementation Activity Description Implementation Activity Status Implementation Activity Estimated Initiation Date Implementation Activity Estimated Completion Date Implementation Activity Labor Types Implementation Activity Work Types Implementation Activity Responsible Parties Implementation Activity Comments Implementation Activity Species
Recovery Plan for Spigelia gentianoides (Gentian pinkroot) F 4 Panama City Ecological Services Field Office (850) 769-0552 Gentian pinkroot Spigelia gentianoides 1 1.1 Revise and implement (where appropriate develop) management plans Ongoing Current U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, The Nature Conservancy, Florida Park Service Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected 2015 FL State Park: Managing fire frequency and intensity to match needs of Spigelia.
Recovery Plan for Spigelia gentianoides (Gentian pinkroot) F 4 Panama City Ecological Services Field Office (850) 769-0552 Gentian pinkroot Spigelia gentianoides 1 1.2 Development and implementation of protection agreements with landowners Not Started U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected
Recovery Plan for Spigelia gentianoides (Gentian pinkroot) F 4 Panama City Ecological Services Field Office (850) 769-0552 Gentian pinkroot Spigelia gentianoides 1 1.4 Cooperate with FL and AL to establish or improve conservation measures for var. alabamensis Ongoing Current U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Botanical Gardens, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Universities and/or other non-government Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected
Recovery Plan for Spigelia gentianoides (Gentian pinkroot) F 4 Panama City Ecological Services Field Office (850) 769-0552 Gentian pinkroot Spigelia gentianoides 1 2.1 Conduct inventories for each known population Ongoing Current U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Botanical Gardens, Florida Natural Areas Inventory, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Universities and/or other non-government, Florida Park Service Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected 2019: Complete and new ongoing inventories in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia: a. Southeast Alabama: 35 sites surveyed: no plants found b. Florida: Calhoun: 1 pop of 6 plants; Washington: 1 pop of 384 plants c. Georgia: No plants found on 10 sites of conservation land and one private timberland on the east side of Lake Seminole 2013: FNAI proposed to survey at Lake Seminole WMA and Silver Lake WMA during May-June 2013 focusing particularly on areas that have been burned in recent years. Results:In most areas the habitat either was upland pine with too much sunlight or, if shaded, had not had fire in a long while and had an understory of tall shrubs and short trees that did not match the low shrub/herb understory where Spigelia has been found at Apalachee WMA in Florida. One site at Silver Lake WMA seemed appropriate (shaded and burned this winter) and was searched carefully but did not find any plants. June 2013: a new population was found of about 20 plants in Washington County at TNC’s Rock Hill Preserve July 2013: Florida Native Plant Society found a new population of 6 plants along a roadside (CR4) near SR 73 in Calhoun county. Two were in flower and 2 in fruit. This site is about 8 miles N of the Calhoun Spigelia Preserve on SR 71 and very close (within 0.1 mi) to the eastern boundary Bear Creek Florida Forever project. 2014: Three Rivers State Park, FL: Wesley Jones, park ranger at Three Rivers surveyed for S. gentianoides: Zone “B” & on the south and west side of Zone “A” :a low estimate of approximately 1,600 to 1,800 plants that bloomed in these 2 zones. In Zones “C”, & “I” another 300 plants. Zone “C” is still in bloom but will be burned in May. Plants appear to do best in filter canopy sunlight). In addition no plants in Zone “D” as expected, the last burn was 2009 and in 2010 we had approximately 200 plants. They appear to go idle when they do not receive fire every 2 and no longer than 3 years. 2015 FL State Park: Currently mapping and updating population estimates yearly; documenting flowering plants during bloom windows, and weather conditions associated with blooming; and as new areas get burned, search for plant for potential range expansion within park.
Recovery Plan for Spigelia gentianoides (Gentian pinkroot) F 4 Panama City Ecological Services Field Office (850) 769-0552 Gentian pinkroot Spigelia gentianoides 1 2.2 Conduct surveys and develop species distribution models to determine survey sites Ongoing Not Current U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Botanical Gardens, Florida Natural Areas Inventory, Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, The Nature Conservancy, Universities and/or other non-government, Florida Park Service Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected
Recovery Plan for Spigelia gentianoides (Gentian pinkroot) F 4 Panama City Ecological Services Field Office (850) 769-0552 Gentian pinkroot Spigelia gentianoides 1 3 Reintroduction within the historic range Not Started U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Botanical Gardens, Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Universities and/or other non-government, Florida Park Service Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected
Recovery Plan for Spigelia gentianoides (Gentian pinkroot) F 4 Panama City Ecological Services Field Office (850) 769-0552 Gentian pinkroot Spigelia gentianoides 1 4 Maintain the species ex-situ in protected facilities Ongoing Current U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Botanical Gardens, Bok Tower Gardens Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected This action is currently in progress, conducted by the BTG and Dr. James Affolter of the SBGG.
Recovery Plan for Spigelia gentianoides (Gentian pinkroot) F 4 Panama City Ecological Services Field Office (850) 769-0552 Gentian pinkroot Spigelia gentianoides 2 5.1.1 Population biology/Demographic studies Not Started U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Botanical Gardens, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Universities and/or other non-government, Florida Park Service Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected A student from Auburn's Department of Biological Sciences is working on a MS thesis involving Spigelia pollination in the Southeast (B. Chowdhury, AU, 7/6/2018, pers. comm.). In addition, B. Chowdhury and collaborators are tracking flowering, herbivory, nectar robbing, and plant growth (B. Chowdhury, AU, 7/10/2018, pers. comm.) for S. alabamensis.
Recovery Plan for Spigelia gentianoides (Gentian pinkroot) F 4 Panama City Ecological Services Field Office (850) 769-0552 Gentian pinkroot Spigelia gentianoides 2 5.1.2 Phenological studies Not Started U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Botanical Gardens, Florida Natural Areas Inventory, Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, The Nature Conservancy, Universities and/or other non-government, Florida Park Service Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected
Recovery Plan for Spigelia gentianoides (Gentian pinkroot) F 4 Panama City Ecological Services Field Office (850) 769-0552 Gentian pinkroot Spigelia gentianoides 2 5.2.1.1 Conduct studies on pollination ecology Ongoing Not Current U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Botanical Gardens, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Universities and/or other non-government Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected Var. alabamensis exhibits both self- and cross-fertilization (i.e., a mixed mating system) but there are no data available for var. gentianoides.
Recovery Plan for Spigelia gentianoides (Gentian pinkroot) F 4 Panama City Ecological Services Field Office (850) 769-0552 Gentian pinkroot Spigelia gentianoides 2 5.3 Conduct studies on seed ecology (seed bank, germination, and seedling survival) Not Started U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Botanical Gardens, Bok Tower Gardens , U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Universities and/or other non-government, Florida Park Service Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected
Recovery Plan for Spigelia gentianoides (Gentian pinkroot) F 4 Panama City Ecological Services Field Office (850) 769-0552 Gentian pinkroot Spigelia gentianoides 2 5.4 Conduct taxonomic studies to determine whether the varieties represent two species Complete FY 2015 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Botanical Gardens, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Universities and/or other non-government Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service listed S. gentianoides as an endangered species on November 26, 1990. In 1996, a new variety (var. alabamensis) of endangered S. gentianoides was described by Gould. The status evaluation of 2009 and the 2012 RP of S. gentianoides considered both varieties. Both documents, however, suggested the possibility that the two taxa warranted specific rank and recommended taxonomic studies using a multi-data approach (e.g., morphology, molecular studies) for discerning whether the two varieties represent distinct species. Weakley et al. (2011) reassessed the appropriate ranks of these taxa based on herbarium and field studies and elevated variety alabamensis to species. In addition, molecular studies using AFLP further supported the taxonomic separation of S. gentianoides and S. alabamensis (Hershberger et al. 2015). Therefore, Spigelia gentianoides var. alabamensis is both morphologically and genetically unique, and it is recognized as a distinct species and separated from Spigelia gentianoides as Spigelia alabamensis (K. Gould) K.G. Mathews & Weakley. The Service supports the current classification. The name in FWS system remains the same, S. gentianoides, as the entity listed in 1990.
Recovery Plan for Spigelia gentianoides (Gentian pinkroot) F 4 Panama City Ecological Services Field Office (850) 769-0552 Gentian pinkroot Spigelia gentianoides 2 5.5 Genetic studies Partially Complete U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Universities and/or other non-government Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected 2015: Hershberger et al. (2015) used AFLP marker to determine genetic differences within and among populations of S. marilandica (SM) and the two S. gentianoides varieties [vars. gentianoides (SGG) and alabamensis (SGA) sensu Gould 1996]. Analysis of molecular variance and estimates of gene diversity showed that the majority of variation found in Spigelia occurs within populations. SM has greater genetic variability than SGG and SGA. Overall, both among-species and among-population variation was low; and three main groups were shown: one with two samples of SGG from one population, one with 13 individuals from both SGG populations used in the study, and one with all of the SM, SGA, and remaining SGG individuals. The authors speculated the results were likely the effect of common ancestry as well as relatively frequent introgression among individuals (and populations) of Spigelia. Note: The Serice agrees that genetic similarity among individuals or species is attributable to common descent. However, introgression between individuals or populations of different Spigelia species seems unlikely, given the geographic separation and morphological distinction. The findings from the STRUCTURE analyses are likely due to common descent. The hypothesis of introgression would be supported if future research revealed in-situ hybridization or individuals with intermediate morphology. 2005: Electrophoretic studies indicated that the genetic identity between these two varieties is high. The Florida sample used in the study, presently growing at the Bok Tower Garden (BTG), Lake Wales, FL, from seeds collected at Calhoun County, was composed of a subset of the genetic variation found in the alabamensis populations 2015: Hershberger et al. (2015) used amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis to determine interspecific and intraspecific genetic variation and to evaluate gene flow of 13 populations of Spigelia, S. marilandica (SM), S. gentianoides var. gentianoides (SGG), and S. gentianoides var. alabamensis (SGA). Both among-species and among-population variation was low.
Recovery Plan for Spigelia gentianoides (Gentian pinkroot) F 4 Panama City Ecological Services Field Office (850) 769-0552 Gentian pinkroot Spigelia gentianoides 3 1.3 Conduct studies on breeding system Ongoing Not Current U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Botanical Gardens, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Universities and/or other non-government, Florida Park Service Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected 2005: Dr. James Affolter investigated the mating system, floral biology, and to some extent the visitors of the var. alabamensis; however, such investigations are lacking for var. gentianoides.
Recovery Plan for Spigelia gentianoides (Gentian pinkroot) F 4 Panama City Ecological Services Field Office (850) 769-0552 Gentian pinkroot Spigelia gentianoides 3 1.3 Monitor and manage for invasive species Ongoing Not Current U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Botanical Gardens, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, The Nature Conservancy, Universities and/or other non-government, Florida Park Service Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected Currently the Three Rivers has a severe infestation of Lygodium japonicum (Thunb. ex Murr.) Sw. (Japanese climbing fern), Nandina domestica Thunb. (nandina, heavenly bamboo or sacred bamboo), Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Japanese honeysuckle), Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. (kudzu) and Albizia julibrissin Durazz. (Persian silk tree, pink siris) (T. Spector, 2011, pers. comm.). In addition, L. japonicum has been found in the vicinity of var. gentianoides and is becoming problematic in areas of the southeast.