Recovery Plan Ad Hoc Report results

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Entity ID=114
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Document ID=400108
Plan Title Plan Stage Plan Lead Region (FWS) Plan Lead Office (FWS) Species Common Name Species Scientific Name Action Priority Action Number Action Description Action Status Estimated Initiation Date Estimated Completion Date Action Lead Agencies Responsible Parties Work Types Labor Types Comments Implementation Activity Number Implementation Activity Description Implementation Activity Status Implementation Activity Estimated Initiation Date Implementation Activity Estimated Completion Date Implementation Activity Labor Types Implementation Activity Work Types Implementation Activity Responsible Parties Implementation Activity Comments Implementation Activity Species
Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan F 1 Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (808) 792-9400 Newell's Townsend's shearwater Puffinus auricularis newelli 1 2.11 Determine need for predator control at each nesting area Ongoing Current FY 2009 Other Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division Management: Predator and Competitor Control Species Expert The State of Hawaii's Kauai Endangered Seabird Recovery Project has initiated this assessment for those colonies they have located and can access for this purpose, notably the Upper Limahuli Valley.
Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan F 1 Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (808) 792-9400 Newell's Townsend's shearwater Puffinus auricularis newelli 1 2.12 Predator trapping where needed Ongoing Current Prior to FY 1995 Other Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, National Park Service, U.S. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services (formerly Animal Damage Control), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wildlife Refuge System Management: Predator and Competitor Control Contract Predator control has been conducted for nesting Hawaiian petrels for many years in Hawaii Volcanoes and Haleakala National Parks, has been underway for petrels on Lanaihale for the past four years, and was initiated last year in Upper Limahuli Valley for Hawaiian petrels and Newell's shearwaters. Ongoing predator control at Kilauea Pt. National Wildlife Refuge benefits the few pairs of Newell's shearwaters that nest there.
Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan F 1 Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (808) 792-9400 Newell's Townsend's shearwater Puffinus auricularis newelli 1 2.151 Perfect safe toxicant and application methods within nesting sites Ongoing Current Prior to FY 1995 Other Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, National Park Service, U.S. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services (formerly Animal Damage Control) Research: Predation Contract Cost to be determined.
Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan F 1 Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (808) 792-9400 Newell's Townsend's shearwater Puffinus auricularis newelli 1 2.152 Obtain toxicant registration and permits for use Partially Complete Prior to FY 1995 Other Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, National Park Service, U.S. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services (formerly Animal Damage Control), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wildlife Refuge System Management: Land Use Internal Administrative Some permits must be obtained on a case by case basis; costs are variable. General EPA registration for aerial broadcast and bait-station application of rodenticide in Hawaii has been completed. Preliminary research is underway to develop baits for a toxicant to kill feral cats.
Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan F 1 Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (808) 792-9400 Newell's Townsend's shearwater Puffinus auricularis newelli 1 2.171 Monitor for presence of new predators Not Started Other Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, National Park Service, U.S. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services (formerly Animal Damage Control) Management: Predator and Competitor Control Contract
Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan F 1 Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (808) 792-9400 Newell's Townsend's shearwater Puffinus auricularis newelli 1 2.172 Develop new predator eradication plans, authority and responsibility Not Started Other Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, National Park Service, U.S. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services (formerly Animal Damage Control) Management: Planning Contract
Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan F 1 Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (808) 792-9400 Newell's Townsend's shearwater Puffinus auricularis newelli 1 2.173 Inform public on undesirability of new predators Ongoing Current Prior to FY 1995 Other Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, Hawaii Department of Agriculture, Hawaii Department of Transportation, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, National Park Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Division, U.S. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services (formerly Animal Damage Control), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wildlife Refuge System Other: Information and Education Contract
Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan F 1 Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (808) 792-9400 Newell's Townsend's shearwater Puffinus auricularis newelli 1 2.174 Enforce laws prohibiting certain exotic animal introductions Ongoing Current Prior to FY 1995 Other Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, Hawaii Department of Agriculture, National Park Service, U.S. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services (formerly Animal Damage Control) Other: Law Enforcement Contract test
Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan F 1 Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (808) 792-9400 Newell's Townsend's shearwater Puffinus auricularis newelli 1 2.221 Determine efficacy of reduced light intensity fallout Ongoing Current FY 2006 Other Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources Research: Population Surveys Contract
Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan F 1 Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (808) 792-9400 Newell's Townsend's shearwater Puffinus auricularis newelli 1 2.224 Develop light abatement implementation methods Ongoing Current Prior to FY 1995 Other Unknown, Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, Hawaii Department of Transportation, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Division Management: Habitat Maintenance and Manipulation Contract
Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan F 1 Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (808) 792-9400 Newell's Townsend's shearwater Puffinus auricularis newelli 1 2.225 Education - light attractant problem and abatement methods Ongoing Current Prior to FY 1995 Other Unknown, Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, Hawaii Department of Transportation, National Park Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Division, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wildlife Refuge System Other: Information and Education Contract
Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan F 1 Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (808) 792-9400 Newell's Townsend's shearwater Puffinus auricularis newelli 1 2.226 Locate primary light attraction problem areas Ongoing Current Prior to FY 1995 Other Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Division Management: Land Use Species Expert, Contract, Internal Technical Assistance These are now fairly well known on Kauai as a result of HCP processes for the island of Kauai and for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative.
Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan F 1 Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (808) 792-9400 Newell's Townsend's shearwater Puffinus auricularis newelli 1 2.228 Obtain legislation to reduce light problem Not Started Other Unknown, Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Division Other: Regulations Species Expert
Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan F 1 Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (808) 792-9400 Newell's Townsend's shearwater Puffinus auricularis newelli 1 3.232 Determine nesting success rates Ongoing Current FY 2007 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, National Park Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wildlife Refuge System Research: Demographic Studies Contract Nest success of `ua`u at Haleakala National Park has been monitored to some extent for many years, but these data have not been fully analyzed or published. With federal funds, State of Hawaii has begun a nest success study of ùaù on Lanai.
Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan F 1 Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (808) 792-9400 Newell's Townsend's shearwater Puffinus auricularis newelli 1 4.1 Study of 'a'o and 'ua'u nesting ecology for application to transplant studies Ongoing Current Prior to FY 1995 Other Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, National Park Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Division Research: Demographic Studies Contract 'Ua'u study initiated in 4/79 in Haleakala National Park, `ua`u nest monitoring begun in 2006 on Lanai. `A`o nesting study conducted beginning in 2005 on Kauai, but sample size is only two or three pairs. Sufficient information about breeding phenology exists to support development of translocation methods.
Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan F 1 Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (808) 792-9400 Newell's Townsend's shearwater Puffinus auricularis newelli 1 4.23 Develop translocation methods Partially Complete FY 2015 FY 2021 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, National Park Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Division, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wildlife Refuge System Management: Reintroduction, Research: Management Techniques Species Expert, Contract, Internal Technical Assistance, Internal Field Assistance Translocation (to protected, artificial colonies) and hand-rearing of petrel and shearwater chicks has been proven as a successful method to establish colonies of these seabird taxa in locations where they can be managed and studied. We have on file a preliminary proposal from a New Zealand expert to develop protocols for translocation of Newell's shearwaters and Hawaiian petrels.
Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan F 1 Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (808) 792-9400 Newell's Townsend's shearwater Puffinus auricularis newelli 2 1.1 Locate, delineate, and declare essential habitat Partially Complete U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, National Park Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Division Management: Planning Internal Technical Assistance, Internal Field Assistance Current USFWS policy does not include delineation of essential habitat. However the State Kauai Endangered Seabird Recovery Project and NPS are mapping colony locations. In addition, a modeling project (KESRP and TExas State University) is underway to predict habitat likely to support listed seabirds. USFWS will begin a modeling exercise to identify suitable habitat in FY14.
Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan F 1 Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (808) 792-9400 Newell's Townsend's shearwater Puffinus auricularis newelli 2 1.22 Enforce fire laws Ongoing Not Current Prior to FY 1995 Other Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, National Park Service Other: Law Enforcement Internal Administrative The justification for this action in the recovery plan is based on dated information; this action may no longer be a critical recovery action for these species.
Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan F 1 Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (808) 792-9400 Newell's Townsend's shearwater Puffinus auricularis newelli 2 1.32 Plan for and reestablish vegetation after fires Not Started Other Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, National Park Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Division, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wildlife Refuge System Management: Habitat Maintenance and Manipulation Contract
Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan F 1 Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (808) 792-9400 Newell's Townsend's shearwater Puffinus auricularis newelli 2 1.41 Include consideration of seabirds in review land use zoning variance proposals Not Started Other Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources Management: Planning Internal Field Assistance
Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan F 1 Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (808) 792-9400 Newell's Townsend's shearwater Puffinus auricularis newelli 2 2.13 Manage pig predation with liberal hunting seasons and access Ongoing Current FY 2013 FY 2100 Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, National Park Service Management: Predator and Competitor Control Contract Recovery plan states this strategy may be useful "in some cases" to reduce predation on seabirds; generally this is not be a desirable method for controlling predators in `a`o or `ua`u nesting areas.
Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan F 1 Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (808) 792-9400 Newell's Townsend's shearwater Puffinus auricularis newelli 2 2.14 Fence nesting habitats where needed and where feasible Ongoing Not Current Prior to FY 1995 Other Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, National Park Service Management: Habitat Maintenance and Manipulation Contract The first such fence on Kauai, of 400 acres in the Upper Limahuli Valley (National Tropical Botanical Garden) is now complete. In 2010, FWS contributed $70K to a cat-fence project that will protect a large proportion of the remaining nest sites of the Hawaiian petrel on Mauna Loa. [NOTE initiation date says 1909! Tried to edit to say 2009, but change didn't "take".]
Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan F 1 Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (808) 792-9400 Newell's Townsend's shearwater Puffinus auricularis newelli 2 2.16 Determine degree of owl predation and control if needed Ongoing Current FY 2007 Other Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Division, U.S. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services (formerly Animal Damage Control) Management: Predator and Competitor Control Contract A project to collect owl and other predator tissues for stable isotope analysis of to determine predation on seabirds was initiated by the State under guidance from USFWS in 2006 (with USFWS recovery funding). This project was completed in 2009, but the results were inconclusive. Therefore this question remains to be answered.
Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan F 1 Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (808) 792-9400 Newell's Townsend's shearwater Puffinus auricularis newelli 2 2.211 Set up and administer aid stations for salvage project Ongoing Current Prior to FY 1995 Other Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources Management: Other Contract The Save Our Shearwaters program on Kauai has been operating since 1979.
Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan F 1 Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (808) 792-9400 Newell's Townsend's shearwater Puffinus auricularis newelli 2 2.212 Pick up, band, and release fallen birds Ongoing Current Prior to FY 1995 Other Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources Management: Other Contract The Save Our Shearwaters program on Kauai has been operating since 1979. A small scale retrieval and release program operates on Maui for Hawaiian petrels.
Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan F 1 Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (808) 792-9400 Newell's Townsend's shearwater Puffinus auricularis newelli 2 2.223 Determine efficacy of polarized light in reducing fallout Not Started Other U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Division Research: Management Techniques Contract
Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan F 1 Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (808) 792-9400 Newell's Townsend's shearwater Puffinus auricularis newelli 2 2.227 Obtain funding for light abatement applications Not Started Other Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Division Other Contract
Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan F 1 Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (808) 792-9400 Newell's Townsend's shearwater Puffinus auricularis newelli 2 2.32 Determine the role of disease as a limiting factor of 'a'o and 'ua'u Not Started Other U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division Research: Disease Contract
Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan F 1 Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (808) 792-9400 Newell's Townsend's shearwater Puffinus auricularis newelli 2 2.33 Implement disease control measures if needed and feasible Not Started Other Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, National Park Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wildlife Refuge System Management: Disease Control Contract
Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan F 1 Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (808) 792-9400 Newell's Townsend's shearwater Puffinus auricularis newelli 2 3.11 Locate typical habitat with aerial photos, vegetation type maps, etc. Partially Complete FY 2009 Other Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, National Park Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Division Research: Habitat Status Graduate Student, Species Expert, Internal Technical Assistance This work has been undertaken for the Newell's shearwater by a graduate student at Texas State University in collaboration with the State's Kauai Endangered Seabird Recovery Project. The resulting GIS habitat model is nearing completion but is likely to have predictive value only for Kauai. In 2011 the Service developed a predictive habitat suitability model for Kauai. The techniques used differed from the Texas graduate student, but the results were similar.
Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan F 1 Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (808) 792-9400 Newell's Townsend's shearwater Puffinus auricularis newelli 2 3.12 Conduct nighttime auditory sampling for nesting colonies Ongoing Current FY 2000 - FY 2004 Other Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources Research: Population Surveys Contract Auditory and/or radar surveys are conducted on Kauai and Lanai by the State.
Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan F 1 Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (808) 792-9400 Newell's Townsend's shearwater Puffinus auricularis newelli 2 3.13 Determine colony boundaries by ground surveys Partially Complete FY 2000 - FY 2004 Other Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, National Park Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Division, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wildlife Refuge System Research: Population Surveys Contract This work is done on Haleakala (Maui) by the National Park Service, and on Kauai and Lanai by the State. Determining colony boundaries in vegetated habitat (i.e., other than high elevation habitats on Maui and the Big Island) proves to be very difficult and incurs risk of creating vectors for predators.
Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan F 1 Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (808) 792-9400 Newell's Townsend's shearwater Puffinus auricularis newelli 2 3.21 Develop population status monitoring technique Ongoing Current FY 2006 Other Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, National Park Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Division Research: Population Surveys Contract This has been done on a coarse level (using data from radar surveys) by contract scientists. Further refinement of radar surveys has been undertaken since 2006 by the State's Kauai Endangered Seabird Recovery Program on Kauai, and by a collaborative project led by USGS in Haleakala National Park (using PIT tags, Autonomous Recording Units, and radar surveys).
Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan F 1 Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (808) 792-9400 Newell's Townsend's shearwater Puffinus auricularis newelli 2 3.22 Devise population monitoring techniques and accomplish every 3 years Ongoing Current FY 2006 Other Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, National Park Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wildlife Refuge System Research: Population Surveys Contract Population monitoring (`ua`u) takes place annually at Haleakala National Park. Monitoring of `ua`u and `a`o using radar survey techniques takes place annually on Kauai. Kauia Endangered Seabird Recovery Program has been monitoring NESH and HAPE at several locations, and has been using video cameras to observe behaviour and causes of nest failure.
Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan F 1 Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (808) 792-9400 Newell's Townsend's shearwater Puffinus auricularis newelli 2 3.231 Determine nesting chronology Ongoing Current FY 2000 - FY 2004 Other Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, National Park Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wildlife Refuge System Research: Demographic Studies Contract One study of `a`o phenology (N=2 pairs) has been underway at Kilauea Pt. NWR since 2003. Phenology of `ua`u has been documented at Haleakala National Park, but this environment may represent atypical habitat or conditions for this species. Phenology of `ua`u is also under study on Lanai.
Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan F 1 Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (808) 792-9400 Newell's Townsend's shearwater Puffinus auricularis newelli 2 3.233 Determine mortality rates and age stratification by banding program and analysis Not Started Other Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, National Park Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wildlife Refuge System Research: Demographic Studies Contract Until colonies are fully protected and monitored, this study cannot be undertaken.
Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan F 1 Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (808) 792-9400 Newell's Townsend's shearwater Puffinus auricularis newelli 2 4.21 Locate eggs and transplant into surrogate nests Partially Complete FY 2016 Other Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, National Park Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wildlife Refuge System Management: Propagation Contract This action is currently suspended pending review of the need for translocation and review of other, possibly more effective translocation methods.
Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan F 1 Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (808) 792-9400 Newell's Townsend's shearwater Puffinus auricularis newelli 2 4.22 Monitor cross-fostering success and evaluate Obsolete Other Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, National Park Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wildlife Refuge System Management: Propagation Contract This action is currently suspended pending review of the need for translocation and review of other, possibly more effective translocation methods.
Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel and Newell's Manx Shearwater Recovery Plan F 1 Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office (808) 792-9400 Newell's Townsend's shearwater Puffinus auricularis newelli 2 5.1 Prepare information packets Ongoing Current FY 2006 Other Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Endangered Species Division Other: Information and Education Contract Currently underway on Kauai through State and private efforts.