Recovery Plan Ad Hoc Report results

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Plan Title Plan Stage Plan Lead Region (FWS) Plan Lead Office (FWS) Species Common Name Species Scientific Name Action Priority Action Number Action Description Action Status Estimated Initiation Date Estimated Completion Date Action Lead Agencies Responsible Parties Work Types Labor Types Comments Implementation Activity Number Implementation Activity Description Implementation Activity Status Implementation Activity Estimated Initiation Date Implementation Activity Estimated Completion Date Implementation Activity Labor Types Implementation Activity Work Types Implementation Activity Responsible Parties Implementation Activity Comments Implementation Activity Species
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 1 1.1 Identify landowners Ongoing Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Conservation Organizations, State Natural Heritage Programs and natural resource agencies, USFWS Regional Office 4 - Ecological Services Management: Planning, Management: Land Use Contract, Internal Administrative 1.1-1 summarize known landowners and identify those suitable for establishing long-term protection agreements Complete 2008 2009 Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected In 2008, concurrent with the 5-year status review, all available landowner information was compiled and reviewed those suitable for establishing long-term protection agreements were identified Gila topminnow (incl. Yaqui) (Poeciliopsis occidentalis)
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 1 1.2 Pursue landowner agreements Ongoing Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Conservation Organizations, State Natural Heritage Programs and natural resource agencies, USFWS Regional Office 4 - Ecological Services Acquisition: Management Agreement, Acquisition: Other, Management: Habitat Maintenance and Manipulation, Management: Planning, Management: Land Use Species Expert, Internal Technical Assistance, Internal Field Assistance, Internal Administrative Will continue at 10K/yr as necessary for 1998-2000 1.2-1 Summmary of landowner agreements thru Oct 2008 Complete 1995 2009 Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected As of 2008, 32 sites are considered protected because they occur on public or private land and are given some level of protection by the landowner (see 5-yr review); 12 of these sites are known to have a formal protection agreement and 11 have a formal management plan.
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 1 1.2 Pursue landowner agreements Ongoing Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Conservation Organizations, State Natural Heritage Programs and natural resource agencies, USFWS Regional Office 4 - Ecological Services Acquisition: Management Agreement, Acquisition: Other, Management: Habitat Maintenance and Manipulation, Management: Planning, Management: Land Use Species Expert, Internal Technical Assistance, Internal Field Assistance, Internal Administrative Will continue at 10K/yr as necessary for 1998-2000 1.2-2 SC FY 2009 Landowner agreements Complete 2009 2009 Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected MOUs for 3 properties - Longlands, Scottswood and Black River
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 1 1.3 Manage on public land Ongoing Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 Other U.S. Forest Service, Department of Defense , Region 5, Division of Ecological Services, State Natural Heritage Programs and natural resource agencies Management: Habitat Maintenance and Manipulation, Management: Land Use, Research: Population Surveys, Research: Habitat Status, Research: Habitat Requirements, Research: Other Information Species Expert, Internal Technical Assistance, Internal Field Assistance no itemized cost for this task 1.3-1 New population found on Fort Bragg Army Base Ongoing Current 2009 Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected New population found on Fort Bragg Army Base in impact zone - will be incorporated into mgmt
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 1 1.3 Manage on public land Ongoing Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 Other U.S. Forest Service, Department of Defense , Region 5, Division of Ecological Services, State Natural Heritage Programs and natural resource agencies Management: Habitat Maintenance and Manipulation, Management: Land Use, Research: Population Surveys, Research: Habitat Status, Research: Habitat Requirements, Research: Other Information Species Expert, Internal Technical Assistance, Internal Field Assistance no itemized cost for this task 1.3-2 Management/Monitoring of NJ population on NJDEP / Burlington Co. lands Complete 2009 2009 Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected mechanical mowing of woody vergetation and trimming of trees was conducted in march 2009. Monitoring of plants occurred.
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 1 1.3 Manage on public land Ongoing Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 Other U.S. Forest Service, Department of Defense , Region 5, Division of Ecological Services, State Natural Heritage Programs and natural resource agencies Management: Habitat Maintenance and Manipulation, Management: Land Use, Research: Population Surveys, Research: Habitat Status, Research: Habitat Requirements, Research: Other Information Species Expert, Internal Technical Assistance, Internal Field Assistance no itemized cost for this task 1.3-3 Management at Brendan T. Byrne State Forest Complete 2009 2009 Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected Mechanical mowing of woody vegetation and trimming of trees and shrubs was conducted in March 2009 to improve light conditions and expand area of potential habitat. Roadside maintenance activities were coordinated with Burlington Co Highway Dept to prevent mowing of roadside palnts during growing season.
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 1 1.3 Manage on public land Ongoing Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 Other U.S. Forest Service, Department of Defense , Region 5, Division of Ecological Services, State Natural Heritage Programs and natural resource agencies Management: Habitat Maintenance and Manipulation, Management: Land Use, Research: Population Surveys, Research: Habitat Status, Research: Habitat Requirements, Research: Other Information Species Expert, Internal Technical Assistance, Internal Field Assistance no itemized cost for this task 1.3-4 Management at Francis Marion National Forest, SC Ongoing Current Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected In effort to reverse trend of declining Schwalbea population, 6 identified sites within Francis Marion National Forest will be prescribed burned at no more than a 3-year interval. Vegetation management including hand control, mastication, and biomass and tree thinnings will be incorporated as needed and be conducted the year prior to burning if possible. USFS will create GIS shapefiles of all burn blocks containing Schwalbea and incorporate into management plan. Genetic research on Schwalbea will be evaluated to determine applicability to FMNF. USFS will coordinate with USFWS on desire to obtain seeds for eventual outplanting.
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 1 3.1 Conduct experiments on effects of fire Partially Complete FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Forest Service, Department of Defense , State Natural Heritage Programs and natural resource agencies, Private Institutions such as univeristies and horticultural facilities, USFWS Regional Office 4 - Ecological Services Management: General, Management: Habitat Maintenance and Manipulation, Research, Research: Management Techniques Species Expert, Contract 2K/yr for 1998-1999 3.1-1 Effect of fire on flowering Complete 1996 1999 Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected Kirkman et al. (1998, p. 124) found that fire induced flowering in American chaffseed in the year in which the burn occurred. This increased flowering could be due to the increase in light from removal of ground cover and / or from an increase in nutrients following a fire (Kirkman et al. 1998, p. 134-135). The duration of the flowering response to fire in American chaffseed is only one year with near absence of flowering in years without fire treatments (Kirkman et al. 1998, p. 133). The timing of fire altered the phenology of anthesis. In Georgia, flower production occurred in May for plants subjected to a dormant season burn and in late-July to August for plants with a growing season burn (Kirkman et al. 1998, p. 124). Prescribed fire in the longleaf/wiregrass system in Georgia does not usually kill larger individuals of American chaffseed; thus regeneration occurs by resprouting and seeding. Fires in March and May triggered rapid stem elongation following fire (Kirkman et al. 1998, p. 131). Burning, regardless of season, resulted in increased population density and expansion of areal extent.
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 1 3.1 Conduct experiments on effects of fire Partially Complete FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Forest Service, Department of Defense , State Natural Heritage Programs and natural resource agencies, Private Institutions such as univeristies and horticultural facilities, USFWS Regional Office 4 - Ecological Services Management: General, Management: Habitat Maintenance and Manipulation, Research, Research: Management Techniques Species Expert, Contract 2K/yr for 1998-1999 3.1-2 Effect of Fire on Seedling Survival Complete 1998 2001 Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected Elevated temperatures associated with fire may reduce germination by destroying seeds (Van Clef 1999, p. 6-7). To determine seed response to heat, the NJONLM applied 2 heat treatments to seed using a drying oven and compared the germination response to a control treatment of seeds left at room temperature. In one treatment, seeds were heated to 40oC for one half hour to simulate the effect of a prescribed burn in winter on seeds buried approximately 5 millimeters below ground surface. In the second treatment, seeds were heated for one half hour at 60oC simulating the heat of natural high intensity wildfire in summer. All seeds treatments were then placed in a controlled germination chamber. American chaffseed seed showed differential responses to the temperature treatments. Seeds that were heated to 40oC had equal viability (mean 87%) to seeds that were held at room temperature (mean 85.7%). However, seeds heated to 60oC showed a significant reduction in viability (mean 54%) (Van Clef 2000, p. 3, 6).
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 1 3.1 Conduct experiments on effects of fire Partially Complete FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Forest Service, Department of Defense , State Natural Heritage Programs and natural resource agencies, Private Institutions such as univeristies and horticultural facilities, USFWS Regional Office 4 - Ecological Services Management: General, Management: Habitat Maintenance and Manipulation, Research, Research: Management Techniques Species Expert, Contract 2K/yr for 1998-1999 3.1-3 Effects of Fire on Habitat Conditions Complete 1995 2008 Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected Most populations of American chaffseed known at the time of listing occurred in areas that were subjected to frequent fires (USFWS 1995, p.13). This holds true in 2008, with the largest and most vigorous populations occurring in areas subjected to frequent natural or man-made wildfires and in areas managed through frequent controlled burns. Of 17 occurrences known in 1993 from Fort Bragg, North Carolina 13 were within training impact areas subject to frequent wildfires caused by military exercises or in areas that are periodically burned to contain wildfires. These populations are large and habitat conditions are maintained by these frequent fires. Outside of the impact areas 4 small occurrences were known. Even on sites with low herbaceous competition, American chaffseed populations at Fort Bragg have declined in the absence of frequent fires, indicating the vegetative competition may be a lesser factor in the species decline than absence of fire (DOD 2007). Use of controlled burning for habitat maintenance and enhancement within mature and old growth pine woodlands to benefit the red-cockaded woodpecker may also benefit American chaffseed in areas where the species coexist. Prescribed burning prescriptions for red-cockaded woodpecker habitat call for early to mid growing season burns on a 1 to 5 year return interval. Habitat with excessive hardwood midstory is to be restored to one with an herbaceous groundcover, preferably by burning at a frequency of 1 to 3 years. Longer intervals are appropriate only for habitat that can be maintained with recommended herbaceous groundcover at those longer burn frequencies (USFWS 2003, p. 201). Burning prescriptions for red-cockaded woodpecker would enhance habitat conditions for American chaffseed.
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 2 3.2 Conduct experiments on other disturbances Partially Complete FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Forest Service, Department of Defense , State Natural Heritage Programs and natural resource agencies, Private Institutions such as univeristies and horticultural facilities, USFWS Regional Office 4 - Ecological Services Management: General, Management: Habitat Maintenance and Manipulation, Management: Predator and Competitor Control, Management: Depredation Control, Management: Disease Control, Management: Land Use, Research: Habitat Requirements, Research: Management Techniques, Research: Predation, Research: Competition, Research: Other Information Volunteer, Species Expert, Contract, Internal Technical Assistance, Internal Field Assistance, Internal Administrative 1K/yr for 1998-1999
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 2 4.1 Conduct research on life history Ongoing Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Forest Service, Department of Defense , Region 5, Division of Ecological Services, State Natural Heritage Programs and natural resource agencies, Private Institutions such as univeristies and horticultural facilities, USFWS Regional Office 4 - Ecological Services Other, Research: General, Research: Habitat Requirements, Research: Demographic Studies, Research: Propagation, Research: Predation, Research: Competition, Research: Disease, Research: Other Information Graduate Student, Species Expert, Contract, Internal Administrative 4.1-1 NJONLM Germination study Complete 1995 1996 Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected In a study conducted by the NJONLM, seeds germinated using wet-cold stratification treatments had a >90% germination rate, whereas <2.5% of seeds undergoing dry-cold stratification treatment germinated.
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 2 4.1 Conduct research on life history Ongoing Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Forest Service, Department of Defense , Region 5, Division of Ecological Services, State Natural Heritage Programs and natural resource agencies, Private Institutions such as univeristies and horticultural facilities, USFWS Regional Office 4 - Ecological Services Other, Research: General, Research: Habitat Requirements, Research: Demographic Studies, Research: Propagation, Research: Predation, Research: Competition, Research: Disease, Research: Other Information Graduate Student, Species Expert, Contract, Internal Administrative 4.1-2 Seed Longevity in the Soil Complete 1998 2003 Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected Field trials to determine seed longevity were initiated by the NJONLM in September 1998. Fifteen nylon mesh bags containing 100 seeds each were buried along the perimeter of the New Jersey site. In subsequent years, bags were retrieved and the contents were placed in a controlled germination chamber. Seeds showed high viability after 1 year with a mean percentage of 89.7% of seeds germinating and retained viability after 2 years, but at a significantly lower rate (72.7% germination). Of the seeds exhumed after 5 years, an empty seed coat was all that remained on all but 7 of 300 seeds; none of the seeds germinated. It appears likely that American chaffseed seeds are not capable of long-term dormancy within the soil.
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 2 4.1 Conduct research on life history Ongoing Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Forest Service, Department of Defense , Region 5, Division of Ecological Services, State Natural Heritage Programs and natural resource agencies, Private Institutions such as univeristies and horticultural facilities, USFWS Regional Office 4 - Ecological Services Other, Research: General, Research: Habitat Requirements, Research: Demographic Studies, Research: Propagation, Research: Predation, Research: Competition, Research: Disease, Research: Other Information Graduate Student, Species Expert, Contract, Internal Administrative 4.1-3 Haustorial Development Complete 1997 2006 Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected American chaffseed is a hemiparasite plant that photosynthesizes in addition to acquiring food from a host species through haustoria (modified roots that serve as a bridge between the vascular system of the host and that of the parasite). In a greenhouse study using 5 known host plants, haustorial development in American chaffseed seedlings was found to be low during the first year of growth regardless of host; however, all host species were parasitized. Of the 5 host species examined, haustoral attachment was greatest in Ilex glabra and Pityopsis graminifolia. These 2 hosts exhibited the most diffuse root systems which may have been a factor in haustorial attachment. These hosts also appeared to encourage greater growth in American chaffseed seedlings than did Aristida stricta, Pinus palustris, or Panicum tenue. However, the percentage of American chaffseed plants that successfully overwintered did not differ by host. Further, few surviving seedlings had formed a haustorial connection to a host. Therefore, it appears that American chaffseed does not require a host to survive to its second year. Although American chaffseed can form haustorial connections with a wide range of species, Kelly found a consistent correlation of American chaffseed with composites and grasses. This correlation may be due to composites and grasses having a higher density of roots near the soil surface than many other plants, increasing the likelihood of tiny American chaffseed seedlings coming into contact with roots of these potential hosts and thus being able to form a haustorial connection.
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 2 4.1 Conduct research on life history Ongoing Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Forest Service, Department of Defense , Region 5, Division of Ecological Services, State Natural Heritage Programs and natural resource agencies, Private Institutions such as univeristies and horticultural facilities, USFWS Regional Office 4 - Ecological Services Other, Research: General, Research: Habitat Requirements, Research: Demographic Studies, Research: Propagation, Research: Predation, Research: Competition, Research: Disease, Research: Other Information Graduate Student, Species Expert, Contract, Internal Administrative 4.1-4 Factors Influencing Flowering and Plant Growth Partially Complete 1997 Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected Kirkman et al. (1998, p. 124) found that fire induced flowering in American chaffseed in the year in which the burn occurred. This increased flowering could be due to the increase in light from removal of ground cover and / or from an increase in nutrients following a fire (Kirkman et al. 1998, p. 134-135). The duration of the flowering response to fire in American chaffseed is only one year with near absence of flowering in years without fire treatments (Kirkman et al. 1998, p. 133). The timing of fire altered the phenology of anthesis. In Georgia, flower production occurred in May for plants subjected to a dormant season burn and in late-July to August for plants with a growing season burn (Kirkman et al. 1998, p. 124). Prescribed fire in the longleaf/wiregrass system in Georgia does not usually kill larger individuals of American chaffseed; thus regeneration occurs by resprouting and seeding. Fires in March and May triggered rapid stem elongation following fire (Kirkman et al. 1998, p. 131). Burning, regardless of season, resulted in increased population density and expansion of areal extent. Norden and Kirkman (2004a, p. 19) found that flowering and subsequent viable seed production in American chaffseed is strongly stimulated by a combination of above-ground stem removal during fire and increased light availability following fire. However, flowering is not induced by either of these factors alone. In field studies using several treatments, increased flowering was induced in the absence of fire by mowing combined with raking to remove litter (Norden and Kirkman 2004a, p. 19). Growing season mowing alone does not appear to be an adequate substitute for burning (Kirkman et al. 1998, p. 115); however, in areas where burning is not feasible, mowing followed by biomass removal through raking can be used to stimulate flowering and seed production (Norden and Kirkman 2004a, p. 20-21).
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 2 4.1 Conduct research on life history Ongoing Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Forest Service, Department of Defense , Region 5, Division of Ecological Services, State Natural Heritage Programs and natural resource agencies, Private Institutions such as univeristies and horticultural facilities, USFWS Regional Office 4 - Ecological Services Other, Research: General, Research: Habitat Requirements, Research: Demographic Studies, Research: Propagation, Research: Predation, Research: Competition, Research: Disease, Research: Other Information Graduate Student, Species Expert, Contract, Internal Administrative 4.1-5 Effect of Fire and Disturbance on Seedling Survival Complete 1996 2001 Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected Elevated temperatures associated with fire may reduce germination by destroying seeds (Van Clef 1999, p. 6-7). To determine seed response to heat, the NJONLM applied 2 heat treatments to seed using a drying oven and compared the germination response to a control treatment of seeds left at room temperature. In one treatment, seeds were heated to 40oC for one half hour to simulate the effect of a prescribed burn in winter on seeds buried approximately 5 millimeters below ground surface. In the second treatment, seeds were heated for one half hour at 60oC simulating the heat of natural high intensity wildfire in summer. All seeds treatments were then placed in a controlled germination chamber. American chaffseed seed showed differential responses to the temperature treatments. Seeds that were heated to 40oC had equal viability (mean 87%) to seeds that were held at room temperature (mean 85.7%). However, seeds heated to 60oC showed a significant reduction in viability (mean 54%) (Van Clef 2000, p. 3, 6). In a study of seedling establishment / response to fire and soil disturbance, the NJONLM, conducted field experiments at Lebanon State Forest, adjacent to the extant American chaffseed site. The entire site was subjected to a controlled burn in February 1999. Seeds were placed at the site within plots with 3 separate soil treatments: no disturbance to leaf litter; raking of top 5 centimeters of soil to remove all leaf litter and living plant material; and raking to remove leaf litter but retaining living plant material. Three hundred seeds were placed in each of the treatment plots. Seedling emergence was very low under all treatments in the field. Seedling emergence was greatest in the plots receiving the strongest disturbance where 28 seedlings emerged. A total of 6 seedlings emerged in undisturbed plots, and only 1 seedling emerged in the plots with light raking. Control plots for each treatment where no seeds were added had 1 seedling each in the 2 disturbance treatments indicating that some natural seed dispersal from the nearby American chaffseed population may be occurring. None of the emerged seedlings lasted past week 13. While seedling emergence was extremely low, the results suggest that disturbance can be beneficial to seedling emergence and that relatively cool controlled burns where leaf litter is not removed are not adequate to create suitable substrate conditions for seedlings (Van Clef 2000, p. 3, 6-7).
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 2 4.1 Conduct research on life history Ongoing Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Forest Service, Department of Defense , Region 5, Division of Ecological Services, State Natural Heritage Programs and natural resource agencies, Private Institutions such as univeristies and horticultural facilities, USFWS Regional Office 4 - Ecological Services Other, Research: General, Research: Habitat Requirements, Research: Demographic Studies, Research: Propagation, Research: Predation, Research: Competition, Research: Disease, Research: Other Information Graduate Student, Species Expert, Contract, Internal Administrative 4.1-6 Longevity and Annual Flower Production Complete 1996 2010 Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected American chaffseed plants at the New Jersey population have been individually tagged, mapped, and censused annually since 1996. Data collected from individual plants show that American chaffseed plants are long-lived and capable of attaining at least ten years of age (Kelly 2006, p. 131). Overall, the number of flowers produced according to the age of the individual indicates that flowering output appears to peak between 3 to 6 years of age. However, flowering of individual plants tended to fluctuate dramatically over time. Flowering tended to rise and fall annually, often to zero or greatly reduced levels in the year after flowering, rather than increasing or decreasing gradually over time. This suggests that there may be significant energetic costs from flowering, such that most plants are incapable of producing large numbers of flowers in consecutive years (Kelly 2006, pp. 131-132).
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 2 4.1 Conduct research on life history Ongoing Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Forest Service, Department of Defense , Region 5, Division of Ecological Services, State Natural Heritage Programs and natural resource agencies, Private Institutions such as univeristies and horticultural facilities, USFWS Regional Office 4 - Ecological Services Other, Research: General, Research: Habitat Requirements, Research: Demographic Studies, Research: Propagation, Research: Predation, Research: Competition, Research: Disease, Research: Other Information Graduate Student, Species Expert, Contract, Internal Administrative 4.1-7 Plant Dormancy Complete 1996 1999 Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected Demographic evidence from studies conducted in Georgia suggests that individual plants are able to remain in the soil in a dormant state for one or more years. Individual plants at the New Jersey site were marked and mapped in 1996 and tracked across several years. The appearance of new adult plants (not seedlings) not present in previous, and absence of known plants in some years provides supporting evidence that American chaffseed plants is capable of below-ground dormancy (Yurlina 1998, pp. 4-5).
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 2 4.1 Conduct research on life history Ongoing Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Forest Service, Department of Defense , Region 5, Division of Ecological Services, State Natural Heritage Programs and natural resource agencies, Private Institutions such as univeristies and horticultural facilities, USFWS Regional Office 4 - Ecological Services Other, Research: General, Research: Habitat Requirements, Research: Demographic Studies, Research: Propagation, Research: Predation, Research: Competition, Research: Disease, Research: Other Information Graduate Student, Species Expert, Contract, Internal Administrative 4.1-8 Herbivory Partially Complete 1994 Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected Severe herbivory by deer threatened the New Jersey American chaffseed site in 1994. Soap has been found to be as effective as chemical deterrents in reducing deer browse. Beginning in 1995, bars of soap have been strung along the perimeter of the Whitesbog, New Jersey site when needed to reduce deer browse. The technique has been effective and no adverse affects to American chaffseed or its habitat have been reported (Obee 1995, p. 3). In 1996, damage to plants consistent with the feeding habits of invertebrates such as gastropods (slugs), orthopterans (grasshoppers), and homopterans (leaf hoppers) was observed at the New Jersey site suggesting that at least one of these invertebrate groups preys upon the plant. The appearance of this new pattern of herbivory was suspected to be related to a wet growing season and presence of leaf litter that could function as an “arthropod refugia” (Yurlina 1996, pp. 6-7). In 1997 insect herbivory increased at the New Jersey site. A long-horned grass hopper in the Family Tettigoniidae and an unidentified type of leaf-rolling lepidotperan larva were observed feeding on the plants. Prescribed burning to reduce leaf litter and was used as a management technique to reduce invertebrate numbers (Yurlina 1998, p. 4). In 2002, Norden and Kirkman (2004b, p. 67) observed severe insect herbivory at three Ichauway experimental treatment study sites in Georgia where neighboring competing vegetation had been anchored down with landscaping staples and American chaffseed stems were clipped at the soil surface to encourage resprouting. Major to complete herbivory (i.e., all leaves gone or stem completely destroyed) from Buckeye butterfly (Junonia coenia) larvae occurred on both vegetative and reproduction portions of 45% of American chaffseed plants in the treatment areas. Only minor herbivory (i.e., holes in leaves or flowers) occurred in treatment plots that were mowed and then raked. No insect herbivory was observed in untreated control plots or areas treated with prescribed fire (Norden and Kirkman 2004b, p. 67). Female butterflies use a combination of visual and chemical recognition cues when searching for suitable host plants on which to oviposit. Thick regrowth of grasses and other ground cover following burning and mowing treatment sites and dense herbaceous ground cover at the control sites likely made American chaffseed plants difficult for female buckeye butterflies to detect. In the vegetation exclusion with stem clipping treatment sites, resprouting American chaffseed plants were visually exposed and thus particularly vulnerable to detection by butterflies (Norden and Kirkman 2004b, pp. 67-68). Management of competing vegetation at extant or potential American chaffseed reintroduction sites should take these finding into consideration when altering the structure of vegetation neighboring American chaffseed plants to prevent an unintentional increase insect herbivory.
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 2 4.2 Conduct research on population demographics Unknown FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Forest Service, Department of Defense , Region 5, Division of Ecological Services, State Natural Heritage Programs and natural resource agencies, Private Institutions such as univeristies and horticultural facilities, USFWS Regional Office 4 - Ecological Services Management: Other, Research: Population Surveys, Research: Demographic Studies, Research: Other Information Volunteer, Graduate Student, Species Expert, Contract, Internal Technical Assistance, Internal Administrative 2K/yr for 1998-2000 4.2-1 Habitat and Plant Associates Complete 1996 1998 Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected During a project to determine the extent and characteristics of unique botanical natural areas in Clarendon and Williamsburg counties, South Carolina, Townsend (1997, p. 281) found a concentration of American chaffseed populations, predominantly in sandy, open canopied longleaf pine flatwoods. The understories were typified by lack of dense shrub cover and an abundance of grasses and forbes. Common understory plant associates at these sites differed somewhat from previously described sites elsewhere within the species range and included: Aletris aurea, Arnica acaulis, Aster squarrosus, Aster linariifolius, Ceanothus americanus, Eryngium yuccifolium, Polygala lutea, Psoralea psoralioides, Pterocaulon pycnostachyum, Schrankia microphylla, Stylosanthes biflora, Tephrosia spicata, and Tephrosia virginiana (Townsend 1997, p. 281).
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 2 4.2 Conduct research on population demographics Unknown FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Forest Service, Department of Defense , Region 5, Division of Ecological Services, State Natural Heritage Programs and natural resource agencies, Private Institutions such as univeristies and horticultural facilities, USFWS Regional Office 4 - Ecological Services Management: Other, Research: Population Surveys, Research: Demographic Studies, Research: Other Information Volunteer, Graduate Student, Species Expert, Contract, Internal Technical Assistance, Internal Administrative 2K/yr for 1998-2000 4.2-2 Habitat Conditions Complete 2002 2006 Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected Kelly (2005, pp. 60-61) found a tendency for American chaffseed plants to be clustered within the New Jersey site. There was a positive correlation between presence of American chaffseed and soil pH values of 4.1 or greater and the presence of little blue stem (Schizachyrium scoparium), broomsedge bluestem (Andropogon virginicus), Maryland golden aster (Chrysopsis mariana). There was also a negative correlation with soil pH values less than 4.1 and the presence of wetland ecotonal indicator species, such as sphagnum moss (Sphagnum tenerum and S. compactum), bushy bluestem (A. glomeratus), and orange milkwort (Polygala lutea) (Kelly 2005, pp. 60-61). However, in a follow-up lab study conducted by the NJONLM, seeds were found to germinate successfully at similar rates across all pH treatments. This suggests that pH itself is not sufficient to explain the clustered pattern observed in the field (Cartica 2005, p. 2).
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 2 4.2 Conduct research on population demographics Unknown FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Forest Service, Department of Defense , Region 5, Division of Ecological Services, State Natural Heritage Programs and natural resource agencies, Private Institutions such as univeristies and horticultural facilities, USFWS Regional Office 4 - Ecological Services Management: Other, Research: Population Surveys, Research: Demographic Studies, Research: Other Information Volunteer, Graduate Student, Species Expert, Contract, Internal Technical Assistance, Internal Administrative 2K/yr for 1998-2000 4.2-3 Effects of Fire on Habitat Conditions Complete 1995 2008 Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected Most populations of American chaffseed known at the time of listing occurred in areas that were subjected to frequent fires (USFWS 1995, p.13). This holds true in 2008, with the largest and most vigorous populations occurring in areas subjected to frequent natural or man-made wildfires and in areas managed through frequent controlled burns. Of 17 occurrences known in 1993 from Fort Bragg, North Carolina 13 were within training impact areas subject to frequent wildfires caused by military exercises or in areas that are periodically burned to contain wildfires. These populations are large and habitat conditions are maintained by these frequent fires. Outside of the impact areas 4 small occurrences were known. Even on sites with low herbaceous competition, American chaffseed populations at Fort Bragg have declined in the absence of frequent fires, indicating the vegetative competition may be a lesser factor in the species decline than absence of fire (DOD 2007). Use of controlled burning for habitat maintenance and enhancement within mature and old growth pine woodlands to benefit the red-cockaded woodpecker may also benefit American chaffseed in areas where the species coexist. Prescribed burning prescriptions for red-cockaded woodpecker habitat call for early to mid growing season burns on a 1 to 5 year return interval. Habitat with excessive hardwood midstory is to be restored to one with an herbaceous groundcover, preferably by burning at a frequency of 1 to 3 years. Longer intervals are appropriate only for habitat that can be maintained with recommended herbaceous groundcover at those longer burn frequencies (USFWS 2003, p. 201). Burning prescriptions for red-cockaded woodpecker would enhance habitat conditions for American chaffseed. Periodic mowing has been suggested as an alternative management technique to burning. Long-term monitoring at the Whitesbog, New Jersey site indicates that in areas that are mowed, but not burned, accumulation of leaf litter may serve as a refugia for invertebrates, increasing incidence of herbivory (Yurlina 1998, pp. 6-7).
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 2 4.3 Determine minimum population Ongoing Current U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Region 5, Division of Ecological Services, State Natural Heritage Programs and natural resource agencies, Private Institutions such as univeristies and horticultural facilities, USFWS Regional Office 4 - Ecological Services Research: Other Information Species Expert, Contract, Internal Administrative 2K/yr for 1998-2000
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 3 1.4 Ensure regulatory protection Ongoing Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service USFWS Regional Office 4 - Ecological Services Other: Information and Education, Other: Law Enforcement, Other: Regulations, Other: Administration Internal Technical Assistance, Internal Field Assistance, Internal Administrative No cost itemized for this task
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 3 2.1 Investigate reintroduction sites Ongoing Current FY 2000 - FY 2004 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Conservation Organizations, Region 5, Division of Ecological Services, State Natural Heritage Programs and natural resource agencies Management: Reintroduction, Management: Planning, Research: Propagation, Research: Reintroduction Graduate Student, Species Expert, Contract, Internal Administrative 2.1-1 Potential re-introduction sites in NJ evaluated Partially Complete 2007 Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected site for trial reintroduction selected in 2007; 2 additional suitable reintroduction sites identified in 2008
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 3 2.2 Conduct trial reintroduction Ongoing Current FY 2007 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Region 5, Division of Ecological Services, State Natural Heritage Programs and natural resource agencies Acquisition: Management Agreement, Management: Reintroduction, Management: Habitat Maintenance and Manipulation, Management: Planning, Other: Administration, Research: Habitat Requirements, Research: Management Techniques, Research: Propagation, Research: Reintroduction, Research: Other Information, Research: Genetics Volunteer, Graduate Student, Species Expert, Contract, Internal Technical Assistance, Internal Administrative 2.2-1 Trial reintroduction in NJ Complete 2007 2009 Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected plants raised from seed in greenhouse were outplanted in historic site; monitoring of site continued in 2008 and 2009
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 3 2.3 Establish new populations Ongoing Current FY 2007 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Conservation Organizations, Region 5, Division of Ecological Services, State Natural Heritage Programs and natural resource agencies Acquisition: Management Agreement, Management: Propagation, Management: Reintroduction, Management: Habitat Maintenance and Manipulation, Management: Planning, Other: Information and Education, Research: Propagation, Research: Competition, Research: Reintroduction, Research: Other Information Volunteer, Graduate Student, Species Expert, Contract, Internal Technical Assistance, Internal Field Assistance, Internal Administrative 5K/yr for 1998-1999, 1K/yr for 2000-2004 (monitoring 2.3-1 establish new populations in historic range in NJ Ongoing Current 2007 Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected New population established in NJ thru trial reintroduction efforton conservation organization lands; 2 additional populations established on State land in NJ in 2008; monitoring of reintroduction sites ocurred in 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011.
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 3 2.3 Establish new populations Ongoing Current FY 2007 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Conservation Organizations, Region 5, Division of Ecological Services, State Natural Heritage Programs and natural resource agencies Acquisition: Management Agreement, Management: Propagation, Management: Reintroduction, Management: Habitat Maintenance and Manipulation, Management: Planning, Other: Information and Education, Research: Propagation, Research: Competition, Research: Reintroduction, Research: Other Information Volunteer, Graduate Student, Species Expert, Contract, Internal Technical Assistance, Internal Field Assistance, Internal Administrative 5K/yr for 1998-1999, 1K/yr for 2000-2004 (monitoring 2.3-2 Controlled propagation Ongoing Current 1995 Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected Numerous attempts were made by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Office of Natural Lands Management (NJONLM) to propagate American chaffseed under controlled greenhouse conditions. Although seeds tended to germinate without difficulty, most seedlings reached no more than a few centimeters in height and few survived beyond the first growing season. Similar difficulties were encountered in efforts to propagate American chaffseed from seed in the field. In 1999, assistance with controlled propagation of American chaffseed was sought from Atlanta Botanical Garden in Georgia using seeds, soil, and host plants from the New Jersey site. As of October 2008, approximately 50 American chaffseed plants were being propagated in greenhouses by the Atlanta Botanical Garden and the Greenbelt Native Plant Center in New York.
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 3 2.3 Establish new populations Ongoing Current FY 2007 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Conservation Organizations, Region 5, Division of Ecological Services, State Natural Heritage Programs and natural resource agencies Acquisition: Management Agreement, Management: Propagation, Management: Reintroduction, Management: Habitat Maintenance and Manipulation, Management: Planning, Other: Information and Education, Research: Propagation, Research: Competition, Research: Reintroduction, Research: Other Information Volunteer, Graduate Student, Species Expert, Contract, Internal Technical Assistance, Internal Field Assistance, Internal Administrative 5K/yr for 1998-1999, 1K/yr for 2000-2004 (monitoring 2.3-3 South Carolina - establish new populations Ongoing Current 2004 Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected USFWS SC FO partnering with private organization (TNC and others). test plots established approx 2004. Propagation of plants ongoing; approx 60 potted plants to be outplanted in 2009/2010
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 3 2.3 Establish new populations Ongoing Current FY 2007 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Conservation Organizations, Region 5, Division of Ecological Services, State Natural Heritage Programs and natural resource agencies Acquisition: Management Agreement, Management: Propagation, Management: Reintroduction, Management: Habitat Maintenance and Manipulation, Management: Planning, Other: Information and Education, Research: Propagation, Research: Competition, Research: Reintroduction, Research: Other Information Volunteer, Graduate Student, Species Expert, Contract, Internal Technical Assistance, Internal Field Assistance, Internal Administrative 5K/yr for 1998-1999, 1K/yr for 2000-2004 (monitoring 2.3-4 2009-10 Propagation efforts Partially Complete 2009 Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected Plants were grown from seed collected from both propagated and wild plants. Seedlings of host plants propagated. Schwalbea seedlings were coplanted with host plant seedlings. Some mortality occurred to host plants so additional plants propagated. By late may 2010 approx 200 Schwalbea seedling were transplanted onto 64 host plants with potential for outplanting as early as fall of 2010.
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 3 2.3 Establish new populations Ongoing Current FY 2007 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Conservation Organizations, Region 5, Division of Ecological Services, State Natural Heritage Programs and natural resource agencies Acquisition: Management Agreement, Management: Propagation, Management: Reintroduction, Management: Habitat Maintenance and Manipulation, Management: Planning, Other: Information and Education, Research: Propagation, Research: Competition, Research: Reintroduction, Research: Other Information Volunteer, Graduate Student, Species Expert, Contract, Internal Technical Assistance, Internal Field Assistance, Internal Administrative 5K/yr for 1998-1999, 1K/yr for 2000-2004 (monitoring 2.3-5 Milestone - Natural Recruitment documented at NJ Reintroduction Site Complete 2011 2011 Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected One seedling found at NJ site where Schwalbea was reintroduced in 2008.
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 3 2.3 Establish new populations Ongoing Current FY 2007 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Conservation Organizations, Region 5, Division of Ecological Services, State Natural Heritage Programs and natural resource agencies Acquisition: Management Agreement, Management: Propagation, Management: Reintroduction, Management: Habitat Maintenance and Manipulation, Management: Planning, Other: Information and Education, Research: Propagation, Research: Competition, Research: Reintroduction, Research: Other Information Volunteer, Graduate Student, Species Expert, Contract, Internal Technical Assistance, Internal Field Assistance, Internal Administrative 5K/yr for 1998-1999, 1K/yr for 2000-2004 (monitoring 2.3-6 NJ Conservation Foundation Reintroduction at FPP Ongoing Current 2011 Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected As of July 2011 - reintroduction site has been prepared at protected wet meadow on the interior of the preserve and is ready to receive Schwalbea plants as soon as new greenhouse plants are ready. Maryland golden aster host plants have been establshed at the site.
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 3 5 Investigate genetic variability Ongoing Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Region 5, Division of Ecological Services, State Natural Heritage Programs and natural resource agencies, Private Institutions such as univeristies and horticultural facilities, USFWS Regional Office 4 - Ecological Services Research: Taxonomic Studies, Research: Propagation, Research: Genetics Graduate Student, Species Expert, Contract, Internal Administrative Brandi Cannon graduate student at Columbia University is researching the genetic variability of Schwalbea americana across its range. 5-1 Genetics study Complete 1995 1999 Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected Godt and Hamrick (1998, p. 89) sampled 13 American chaffseed populations across the species range to describe allozyme diversity at 15 presumptive loci. Genetic diversity was low for the species. Seven populations (1 in Georgia, 3 in North Carolina, 1 in New Jersey, and 2 in South Carolina) were found to be monomorphic for all 15 loci examined. Thus, no genetic diversity was found among plants within these populations. Polymorphism was detected within some of the larger American chaffseed populations in Georgia and North and South Carolina (Godt and Hamrick 1998, p. 91). The low genetic diversity found within American chaffseed as a species and the low level of population differentiation suggest that dispersal into the species present range may have occurred following a genetic bottleneck. The habitat requirements of American chaffseed may predispose the species to the loss of genetic diversity. As a shade intolerant species adapted to early successional habitats opened by fire, American chaffseed may always have been a fugitive species. Anthropogenic fire suppression probably disrupted metapopulation dynamics (Godt and Hamrick 1998, p. 92).
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 3 6.1 Develop monitoring strategy Complete FY 2017 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Forest Service Management: Planning, Research: Population Surveys, Research: Habitat Status, Research: Other Information Species Expert
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 3 6.2 Monitor known sites and new sites as they are found Ongoing Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Forest Service, Department of Defense , Region 5, Division of Ecological Services, State Natural Heritage Programs and natural resource agencies, Private Institutions such as univeristies and horticultural facilities, USFWS Regional Office 4 - Ecological Services Research: Population Surveys, Research: Habitat Status Labor type not yet selected 10K/yr for 1998-2004 6.2-1 Monitor known sites Ongoing Current 1995 Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected NJ- populations are monitored annually SE US - monitoring has been sporadic, but efforts have increased since approx 2007; monitoring of a portion of known sites was conducted in 2008 and 2009 in NJ, NC, AL, and SC. Monitoring of NJ populations occurred in 2010 & 2011
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 3 6.2 Monitor known sites and new sites as they are found Ongoing Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Forest Service, Department of Defense , Region 5, Division of Ecological Services, State Natural Heritage Programs and natural resource agencies, Private Institutions such as univeristies and horticultural facilities, USFWS Regional Office 4 - Ecological Services Research: Population Surveys, Research: Habitat Status Labor type not yet selected 10K/yr for 1998-2004 6.2-2 Monitoring of NJ populations occurred in 2010 Complete 2010 2011 Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected See Jay Kelly and NJONLM reports
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 3 6.2 Monitor known sites and new sites as they are found Ongoing Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Forest Service, Department of Defense , Region 5, Division of Ecological Services, State Natural Heritage Programs and natural resource agencies, Private Institutions such as univeristies and horticultural facilities, USFWS Regional Office 4 - Ecological Services Research: Population Surveys, Research: Habitat Status Labor type not yet selected 10K/yr for 1998-2004 6.2-3 Monitoring of NJ populations occurred in 2011 Complete 2011 2011 Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected See 7-20-2011 email from Jay Kelly - decline in NJ wild population to <300 plants. First seedling found at reintroduced population demonstaing natural recruitment is occuring
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 3 6.2 Monitor known sites and new sites as they are found Ongoing Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Forest Service, Department of Defense , Region 5, Division of Ecological Services, State Natural Heritage Programs and natural resource agencies, Private Institutions such as univeristies and horticultural facilities, USFWS Regional Office 4 - Ecological Services Research: Population Surveys, Research: Habitat Status Labor type not yet selected 10K/yr for 1998-2004 6.2-4 Alabama denovo surveys 2009 & 2010 Complete 2009 2010 Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected Approximately 15 (sub) populations of Schwalbea found in Bullock County (Southeast Alabama, near Hurtsboro, AL). Most of these locations have less than 40 plants, but a couple had more than 200 plants. Schwalbea had not been seen in Alabama since 1999. These are new populations (i.e., not in a historic or known location), and are disjunct from all other known records of chaffseed in the region. See email of 8/19/2010 from Eric Spadgenske
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 3 6.2 Monitor known sites and new sites as they are found Ongoing Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Forest Service, Department of Defense , Region 5, Division of Ecological Services, State Natural Heritage Programs and natural resource agencies, Private Institutions such as univeristies and horticultural facilities, USFWS Regional Office 4 - Ecological Services Research: Population Surveys, Research: Habitat Status Labor type not yet selected 10K/yr for 1998-2004 6.2-5 LA - species surveys - new occurrence in Beauregard parish Complete 2010 2010 Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected See Feb 2011 emails from Rob Smith
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 3 6.2 Monitor known sites and new sites as they are found Ongoing Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Forest Service, Department of Defense , Region 5, Division of Ecological Services, State Natural Heritage Programs and natural resource agencies, Private Institutions such as univeristies and horticultural facilities, USFWS Regional Office 4 - Ecological Services Research: Population Surveys, Research: Habitat Status Labor type not yet selected 10K/yr for 1998-2004 6.2-6 Monitoring at Francis Marion National Forest, SC Ongoing Current Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected Biennial surveys of 6 identified populations of Schwalbea within Francis Marion National Forest. Since 2001 number of plants declined from 1244 to 405.
American Chaffseed (Schwalbea americana) Recovery Plan F 5 New Jersey Ecological Services Field Office (609) 646-9310 American chaffseed Schwalbea americana 3 7 Review recovery progress and revise recovery plan as necessary Ongoing Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Region 5, Division of Ecological Services, State Natural Heritage Programs and natural resource agencies Other: Administration Species Expert, Internal Administrative No cost itemized for this task 7-1 5-year status review Complete 2008 2009 Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected Completed 10/06/2008 Signed R5 8/11/2010 Concurrence R4 8/13/2010