Recovery Plan Ad Hoc Report results

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Plan Title Plan Stage Plan Lead Region (FWS) Plan Lead Office (FWS) Species Common Name Species Scientific Name Action Priority Action Number Action Description Action Status Estimated Initiation Date Estimated Completion Date Action Lead Agencies Responsible Parties Work Types Labor Types Comments Implementation Activity Number Implementation Activity Description Implementation Activity Status Implementation Activity Estimated Initiation Date Implementation Activity Estimated Completion Date Implementation Activity Labor Types Implementation Activity Work Types Implementation Activity Responsible Parties Implementation Activity Comments Implementation Activity Species
Walker's Manioc (Manihot walkerae) Recovery Plan F 2 Texas Coastal Ecological Services Field Office (281) 286-8282 Walker's manioc Manihot walkerae 1 111 Inform and educate landowners Ongoing Current Prior to FY 1995 The Nature Conservancy, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, The Nature Conservancy, Private landowners, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department Management: Habitat Maintenance and Manipulation Contract, Internal Technical Assistance TPWD used Section 6 funds to contract species experts to do landowner contact. One landowner was notified about manioc by TNC; later signed a voluntary conservation agreement with TPWD. Dr. Robert Lonard notified TXDOT regarding a manioc population in the ROW of FM 2221; TXDOT then designated a "no mow" zone. 111-1 Planned Work for FY 14 S TX Endangered Plants includes: Refuges looking for potential property for inclusion to the Refuge complex, or transplanting plants from lands that are to be developed. Ongoing Not Current Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected
Walker's Manioc (Manihot walkerae) Recovery Plan F 2 Texas Coastal Ecological Services Field Office (281) 286-8282 Walker's manioc Manihot walkerae 1 112 Encourage the establishment of stewardship agreements Ongoing Current FY 2000 - FY 2004 Other U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ecological Services Division, The Nature Conservancy, Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge, Texas Land Steward Society Management: General Species Expert, Internal Technical Assistance Year 4 and 5 two thousand. Between 2002 and 2006, 20 private LO signed Voluntary Conservation Agreements (VCA) however, only one included W.manioc. In Mexico, Pronatura Noreste has two conservation agreements with LO in Tamaulipas. As of 2009, three populations are protected on tracts of LRGV NWR, a LO conservation agreement was signed for a private ranch in TX, and one population is managed by TxDOT on the ROW.
Walker's Manioc (Manihot walkerae) Recovery Plan F 2 Texas Coastal Ecological Services Field Office (281) 286-8282 Walker's manioc Manihot walkerae 1 121 Determine landowner short-term and long-term land use goals Unknown Prior to FY 1995 Other U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ecological Services Division, Other parties, The Nature Conservancy, Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, USFWS Regional Office 2 Management: Land Use Species Expert ES costs = 2K/year. UNAM/UAT or other and/or TNC costs = 2K/year.
Walker's Manioc (Manihot walkerae) Recovery Plan F 2 Texas Coastal Ecological Services Field Office (281) 286-8282 Walker's manioc Manihot walkerae 1 122 Develop and implement management plans for known sites. Ongoing Current FY 2000 - FY 2004 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ecological Services Division, USFWS Regional Office 2 Management: Planning Species Expert Year 4 and 5 also five thousand. 122-1 Planned Work for FY 14 S TX Endangered Plants includes: Management plans for known sites and Refuge populations will include protocols to prevent encroachment of non-native invasive grasses over several years. Ongoing Not Current Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected
Walker's Manioc (Manihot walkerae) Recovery Plan F 2 Texas Coastal Ecological Services Field Office (281) 286-8282 Walker's manioc Manihot walkerae 1 123 Develop a monitoring program with landowner association. Ongoing Current FY 2015 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge Management: Population Monitoring Internal Field Assistance Walker's manioc occurs on several LRGVNWR tracts. The refuge monitors site conditions, including level of threats, during some years. During FY16, LRGVNWR Plant Ecologist made site visits to Chicharro Banco, Yturria Brush, and LaPuerta refuge tracts to inspect manioc plant and habitat conditions and to monitor threats. Buffelgrass was present and encroaching into manioc habitat at Chicharro banco and LaPuerta sites. 123-1 Planned Work for FY 14 S TX Endangered Plants includes: Refuges will include a monitoring plan in the PRIMR databse within the Refuge Inventory and Monitoring program. This will include monitoring of population on both Refuge and private lands. Ongoing Not Current Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected
Walker's Manioc (Manihot walkerae) Recovery Plan F 2 Texas Coastal Ecological Services Field Office (281) 286-8282 Walker's manioc Manihot walkerae 1 123 Develop a monitoring program with landowner association. Ongoing Current FY 2015 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge Management: Population Monitoring Internal Field Assistance Walker's manioc occurs on several LRGVNWR tracts. The refuge monitors site conditions, including level of threats, during some years. During FY16, LRGVNWR Plant Ecologist made site visits to Chicharro Banco, Yturria Brush, and LaPuerta refuge tracts to inspect manioc plant and habitat conditions and to monitor threats. Buffelgrass was present and encroaching into manioc habitat at Chicharro banco and LaPuerta sites. 123-2 Site visits to Chicharoo Banco and La Puerta populations Ongoing Current 2015 Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected In FY15, LRGVNWR staff made site visits to 2 refuge tracts with Walker's manioc populations (Chicharro Banco and La Puerta) to monitor threats. They noted an increase in buffelgrass (an invasive, non-native grass) at both sites.
Walker's Manioc (Manihot walkerae) Recovery Plan F 2 Texas Coastal Ecological Services Field Office (281) 286-8282 Walker's manioc Manihot walkerae 1 123 Develop a monitoring program with landowner association. Ongoing Current FY 2015 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge Management: Population Monitoring Internal Field Assistance Walker's manioc occurs on several LRGVNWR tracts. The refuge monitors site conditions, including level of threats, during some years. During FY16, LRGVNWR Plant Ecologist made site visits to Chicharro Banco, Yturria Brush, and LaPuerta refuge tracts to inspect manioc plant and habitat conditions and to monitor threats. Buffelgrass was present and encroaching into manioc habitat at Chicharro banco and LaPuerta sites. 123-3 During FY16, LRGVNWR Plant Ecologist made site visits to Chicharro Banco, Yturria Brush, and LaPuerta refuge tracts to inspect manioc plant and habitat conditions and to monitor threats. Buffelgrass was present and encroaching into manioc habitat at Chicharro banco and LaPuerta sites. Ongoing Current Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected
Walker's Manioc (Manihot walkerae) Recovery Plan F 2 Texas Coastal Ecological Services Field Office (281) 286-8282 Walker's manioc Manihot walkerae 1 13 Enforce applicable laws and regulations Ongoing Current Prior to FY 1995 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ecological Services Division, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Law Enforcement Division, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, USFWS Regional Office 2 Other: Law Enforcement, Other: Regulations Internal Field Assistance ES costs = 1.25K/year. LE costs = 0.25K/year. TPWD costs = 0.5K/year. At two sites, La Puerta and Yturria Brush, a pipeline company did work in the ROW. They had not sprayed the ROW areas. ROW maintenance was planned at La Puerta and Los Olmos (does not have documented plants but is suitable habitat). A complete survey was along ROW was done in Feb.2013 but plants were not found. Still, we recommended to use a mulcher as it will not disturb the already-established powerline ROW (K.Wahl, 7/11/2013). 13-1 Coordination with AEP and subcontractors for vegetation Rights of Way maintenance began in 2012. Meetings and coordination will occur throughout the year to determine vegetation maintenance necessary, potential impacts to plant population, and proceed with an intra-Service Section 7 consultation. No Rights of Way maintenance was completed within refuge boundaries in 2014 Ongoing Current 2012 Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected
Walker's Manioc (Manihot walkerae) Recovery Plan F 2 Texas Coastal Ecological Services Field Office (281) 286-8282 Walker's manioc Manihot walkerae 1 13 Enforce applicable laws and regulations Ongoing Current Prior to FY 1995 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ecological Services Division, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Law Enforcement Division, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, USFWS Regional Office 2 Other: Law Enforcement, Other: Regulations Internal Field Assistance ES costs = 1.25K/year. LE costs = 0.25K/year. TPWD costs = 0.5K/year. At two sites, La Puerta and Yturria Brush, a pipeline company did work in the ROW. They had not sprayed the ROW areas. ROW maintenance was planned at La Puerta and Los Olmos (does not have documented plants but is suitable habitat). A complete survey was along ROW was done in Feb.2013 but plants were not found. Still, we recommended to use a mulcher as it will not disturb the already-established powerline ROW (K.Wahl, 7/11/2013). 13-2 Seismic line survey conducted at La Puerta during FY15. Complete 2015 Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected LRGVNWR staff surveyed for rare plants along a seismic line route through the refuge's La Puerta tract. They found 1 manioc plant approximately 3/4 mile from the known population.
Walker's Manioc (Manihot walkerae) Recovery Plan F 2 Texas Coastal Ecological Services Field Office (281) 286-8282 Walker's manioc Manihot walkerae 1 211 Study soils and underlying geology Unknown Prior to FY 1995 Other U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ecological Services Division, Other parties, Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge, USFWS Regional Office 2 Research: Habitat Requirements Contract, Internal Field Assistance ES costs: FY1 = 1K, FY2&3 = 0.5K/year. Priority 1 because this information is not known. Parties: ES, UNAM/UAT or other (through ES). Field notes from 1995 from La Puerta tract in LRGV NWR found that plants are on shallow to moderately shallow sandy caliche soils.
Walker's Manioc (Manihot walkerae) Recovery Plan F 2 Texas Coastal Ecological Services Field Office (281) 286-8282 Walker's manioc Manihot walkerae 1 212 Determine community structure Partially Complete Prior to FY 1995 Other U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ecological Services Division, Other parties, Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, USFWS Regional Office 2 Research: Habitat Status, Research: Habitat Requirements Species Expert Priority 1 because this information is not known. ES costs: FY1 = 10K, FY2&3 = 3K/year.
Walker's Manioc (Manihot walkerae) Recovery Plan F 2 Texas Coastal Ecological Services Field Office (281) 286-8282 Walker's manioc Manihot walkerae 1 2131 Study response to past land use practices Partially Complete Prior to FY 1995 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Other parties, Private landowners, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge Research: Management Techniques Contract, Internal Technical Assistance, Internal Field Assistance Many of the known populations are found on currnt or former cattle ranches. Cattle grzing is not an apparent problem for manioc and may help to reduce competion, even from invasive grasses. However, granzing may also have played a large role in the increaing shrub cover in the LRGV which is a problem for manioc. One population in Mexico was found in a ejido field that had been plowed only one time in the recent past and was not herbicided. The manioc was found to have sprouted from fragments of tubers spread around the field by the plowing.
Walker's Manioc (Manihot walkerae) Recovery Plan F 2 Texas Coastal Ecological Services Field Office (281) 286-8282 Walker's manioc Manihot walkerae 1 2132 Study response to fire Unknown Prior to FY 1995 Other U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ecological Services Division, Other parties, Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, USFWS Regional Office 2 Research: Other Information Species Expert Priority 1 because this information is not known. All costs are ES
Walker's Manioc (Manihot walkerae) Recovery Plan F 2 Texas Coastal Ecological Services Field Office (281) 286-8282 Walker's manioc Manihot walkerae 1 2133 Study interactions with other species (beneficial and negative). Partially Complete Prior to FY 1995 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Other parties U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Other parties, Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge Management: Habitat Maintenance and Manipulation Internal Field Assistance Common invasive grasses include buffelgrass and is present at most W.manioc sites. Pitted bluestem may also compete with Walker's manioc (C.Best 2005). In FY2013, there was damage to plants at the Charro Bance site noticed this year as well as the past few years. Plan are in place to put up an exclusion fence; a funding proposal was submitted this year and funding may be provided next FY. Javelina have been noted digging up, partially consuming, and spreading pieces of tubers which have then resprouted. Rabbits have been seen to consume stems and leaves.
Walker's Manioc (Manihot walkerae) Recovery Plan F 2 Texas Coastal Ecological Services Field Office (281) 286-8282 Walker's manioc Manihot walkerae 1 2134 Study response to periodic freezing temperatures Unknown Prior to FY 1995 Other U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ecological Services Division, Other parties, Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, USFWS Regional Office 2 Research: Habitat Requirements Species Expert Priority 1 because this information is not known. All costs are ES.
Walker's Manioc (Manihot walkerae) Recovery Plan F 2 Texas Coastal Ecological Services Field Office (281) 286-8282 Walker's manioc Manihot walkerae 1 221 Do a demographic analysis of populations with demographic structure Unknown Prior to FY 1995 Other U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ecological Services Division, Other parties, Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, USFWS Regional Office 2 Research: Demographic Studies Species Expert Priority 1 because this information is not known. All costs are ES.
Walker's Manioc (Manihot walkerae) Recovery Plan F 2 Texas Coastal Ecological Services Field Office (281) 286-8282 Walker's manioc Manihot walkerae 1 222 Characterize phenology Unknown Prior to FY 1995 Other U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ecological Services Division, Other parties, Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, USFWS Regional Office 2 Research: Other Information Species Expert Priority 1 because this information is not known. All costs are ES.
Walker's Manioc (Manihot walkerae) Recovery Plan F 2 Texas Coastal Ecological Services Field Office (281) 286-8282 Walker's manioc Manihot walkerae 1 223 Determine the primary means of reproduction in the wild Partially Complete Prior to FY 1995 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge Research Internal Technical Assistance, Internal Field Assistance The species is self-fertile; produces viable seeds. Also capable of producing tubers even when the plant is less than one year of age (Best 2008). The manioc perenniates in the wild through both seeds and tubers (Best 2008).
Walker's Manioc (Manihot walkerae) Recovery Plan F 2 Texas Coastal Ecological Services Field Office (281) 286-8282 Walker's manioc Manihot walkerae 1 224 Study pollination biology and determine pollination requirements Partially Complete Prior to FY 1995 Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge Research: Other Information Internal Field Assistance Observations indicate that Walker's manioc does not need a rare or specialized pollinator (Best 2008).
Walker's Manioc (Manihot walkerae) Recovery Plan F 2 Texas Coastal Ecological Services Field Office (281) 286-8282 Walker's manioc Manihot walkerae 1 225 Study seed production and dispersal Partially Complete Prior to FY 1995 Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge Management: Propagation, Research: Propagation Internal Technical Assistance, Internal Field Assistance A 1993 Cooperative Agreement with USFWS and the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) to conduct preliminary reproductive biology, reproductive work on at least one Mexican population, and prepare a report; unaware that we ever received this report. The LRGVNWR and the San Antonio botanical Garden have propagated manioc and found it to be self-fertile. Fruit capsules contain 3 seeds that dehisce and expel seeds a distance of several meters by sponaneous violent dehiscence of the capsule upon drying (Best 2008). Seeds can remain dorman for more than a year. Can induce germination by exposure to heat and moisture (Simpson 1995), or gibberellic acid (naturally-occurring plant hormone (Best 2008). Ants have been noted to grasp the seeds by the caruncle and carry them; thereby dispersing seeds.
Walker's Manioc (Manihot walkerae) Recovery Plan F 2 Texas Coastal Ecological Services Field Office (281) 286-8282 Walker's manioc Manihot walkerae 1 226 Study seedling recruitment Partially Complete Prior to FY 1995 Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge Research: Demographic Studies Internal Technical Assistance, Internal Field Assistance Observations have shown that under ambient conditions in the soil, seeds may start germnating withn 9 months.
Walker's Manioc (Manihot walkerae) Recovery Plan F 2 Texas Coastal Ecological Services Field Office (281) 286-8282 Walker's manioc Manihot walkerae 1 23 Study cultivation requirements Partially Complete Prior to FY 1995 Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge Other parties, Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge Management: Propagation, Research: Propagation Contract, Internal Technical Assistance, Internal Field Assistance Propagation efforts have taken place at the Lower Rio Grande Valley NWR and at the San Antonio Botanical Garden.
Walker's Manioc (Manihot walkerae) Recovery Plan F 2 Texas Coastal Ecological Services Field Office (281) 286-8282 Walker's manioc Manihot walkerae 1 3 Search for new populations Ongoing Current Prior to FY 1995 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ecological Services Division, Other parties, The Nature Conservancy, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, USFWS Regional Office 2 Research: Population Surveys Species Expert, Internal Field Assistance Year 4 and 5 also six thousand. ES costs = 5K/year. TPWD costs = 1K/year. In 2002, FWS, TNC, and TPWD did a survey of a 1200-acree ranch in Duval County and found a new unreported population. In April 2005, evaluation of ranch in Tamaulipas, Mexico reported large population (Arquieta Final Report). In FY08, DHS contractors surveyed for the presence of manioc along route of proposed border fence. 3-1 Planned Work for FY 14 S TX Endangered Plants includes: Areas identified as having appropriate soil and habitat characteristics, (e.g. La Pureta, Los Olmos, Yturria Brush tracts) will be surveyed for new populations. Ongoing Current Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected
Walker's Manioc (Manihot walkerae) Recovery Plan F 2 Texas Coastal Ecological Services Field Office (281) 286-8282 Walker's manioc Manihot walkerae 1 4 Establish a botanical garden population Unknown Prior to FY 1995 Other U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ecological Services Division, Other parties, Center for Plant Conservation, USFWS Regional Office 2 Management: Propagation, Research: Propagation Species Expert Year 4 and 5 also total three thousand. ES costs = 1K/year. CPC costs = 2K/year. In 1994, a Cooperative Agreement with the SABG to establish refugia for species. 4-1 Planned Work for FY 14 S TX Endangered Plants includes: Refuges and Ecological Services will work with the San Antonio Botanical Garden, and the Marinoff Nursery Facility, to participate in the CPC National Collection Rare Plant Program. Ongoing Not Current Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected
Walker's Manioc (Manihot walkerae) Recovery Plan F 2 Texas Coastal Ecological Services Field Office (281) 286-8282 Walker's manioc Manihot walkerae 2 51 Appoint a working team to help plan and oversee the reintroduction program Ongoing Current Prior to FY 1995 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ecological Services Division, USFWS Regional Office 2 Management: Planning Species Expert, Internal Technical Assistance Year 4 and 5 also four thousand. A South Texas Plant Recovery Team was appointed in summer 2010.
Walker's Manioc (Manihot walkerae) Recovery Plan F 2 Texas Coastal Ecological Services Field Office (281) 286-8282 Walker's manioc Manihot walkerae 2 53 Propagate plants for reintroduction. Unknown Prior to FY 1995 Other U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ecological Services Division, Other parties, Center for Plant Conservation, Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge, USFWS Regional Office 2 Management: Propagation, Research: Propagation Species Expert Year 4 and 5 also total eight thousand. ES costs = 3K/year. LRGVNR costs = 5K/year. Seeds from La Joya plant and from the SABG - the gene pool was too small for long-term population survival. 53-1 Refuge 2014 plan included a proposal to locate suitable areas for new populations on any refuge tracts, assess the sites, and develop a reintroduction / propogation plan. Planned Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected
Walker's Manioc (Manihot walkerae) Recovery Plan F 2 Texas Coastal Ecological Services Field Office (281) 286-8282 Walker's manioc Manihot walkerae 2 54 Experimental pilot project at suitable site Unknown Prior to FY 1995 Other U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ecological Services Division, Other parties, The Nature Conservancy, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge, USFWS Regional Office 2 Management: Propagation, Management: Reintroduction Species Expert ES costs = 5K/year. LRGVNR costs = 5K/year. TPWD, TNC or other costs = 2.5K/year. 54-1 Refuge 2014 plan included drafting of reintroduction / propogation / monitoring plans on refuge tracts. Planned Labor type not yet selected Work type not yet selected
Walker's Manioc (Manihot walkerae) Recovery Plan F 2 Texas Coastal Ecological Services Field Office (281) 286-8282 Walker's manioc Manihot walkerae 2 56 Monitor reintroduction populations Unknown Prior to FY 1995 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ecological Services Division, Other parties, The Nature Conservancy, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge, USFWS Regional Office 2 Research: Population Surveys Species Expert, Internal Field Assistance Year 4 and 5 also total six thousand. ES costs = 3K/year. LRGVNR costs = 2K/year.
Walker's Manioc (Manihot walkerae) Recovery Plan F 2 Texas Coastal Ecological Services Field Office (281) 286-8282 Walker's manioc Manihot walkerae 3 55 Establishment of reintroduced populations on suitable site Ongoing Current Prior to FY 1995 Other U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ecological Services Division, Other parties, The Nature Conservancy, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge, USFWS Regional Office 2 Management: Propagation, Management: Reintroduction Species Expert Year 4 and 5 also total eight thousand. ES costs: FY1&2 = 3.5K/year, FY3 = 2K. LRGVNR costs: FY1&2 = 8K/year, FY3 = 4K. TPWD,TNC or other costs: FY1&2 = 3.5K/year, FY3 = 2K. In FY08, 7 manioc plants were rescued from a building site and are being kept by LRGV at its nursery facility - the refuge is creating a refugium garden for the plants.
Walker's Manioc (Manihot walkerae) Recovery Plan F 2 Texas Coastal Ecological Services Field Office (281) 286-8282 Walker's manioc Manihot walkerae 3 6 Develop a public information and awareness program Unknown Prior to FY 1995 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ecological Services Division, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, USFWS Regional Office 2 Other: Information and Education Internal Technical Assistance ES costs = 1K/year. TPWD costs = 0.5K/year. In FY2013, preventitive signs were posted at the La Puerta and Ytturia Brush sites to prevent damage from herbicide spray/drift into ROW.